, 65 tweets, 20 min read Read on Twitter
Genetic differences between human populations: more than meets the eye (link thread):
Indonesian Bajau divers have recently evolved 50% larger spleens for storing reserve of oxygenated blood needed in long dives dropbox.com/s/w5t351hboh14…
Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation science.sciencemag.org/content/349/62…
Admixture study identifies FBN1 gene reducing height by 2-4cm in Peruvians, possible selection target. "Study of short Peruvians reveals new gene with a major impact on height" sciencemag.org/news/2018/05/s…
Recent human evolution leading to between-group differences: local adaptations of noses to local climates. "Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation", Zaidi et al 2017 journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/a…
Genetic variation in carbohydrate digestion enzymes in human populations discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1535207/
Large between-country differences due to local adaptations: "Selection in Europeans on Fatty Acid Desaturases Associated with Dietary Changes", Buckley et al 2017 academic.oup.com/mbe/article/34…
Domestication of rice responsible for mutation causing Asians' alcohol flush reaction, research finds sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/…
Ethnic differences in level of response to alcohol between Chinese Americans and Korean Americans. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18299763
On the Evolution of Lactase Persistence in Humans annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/an…
Sickle cell disease: Due to the adaptive advantage of the heterozygote, the disease is still prevalent, especially among people with recent ancestry in malaria-stricken areas ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
High-altitude adaptation in humans en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-alti…
Most of the world's population have gene that codes for the wet-type earwax and normal body odor; however, East Asians are genetically predisposed for the allele associated with the dry-type earwax and a reduction in body odor. bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11… / jidonline.org/article/S0022-…
Mean differences in a phenotype (e.g. height, waist-to-hip ratio and risk to schizophrenia) among African, Eastern Asian and European populations are at least partly driven by natural selection. nature.com/articles/s4146…
Modeling recent human evolution in mice by expression of a selected EDAR variant ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
A 2017 study found correlation of Neanderthal admixture in modern European populations with traits such as skin tone, hair color, height, sleeping patterns, mood and smoking addiction. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28985494
Neanderthal-Derived Genetic Variation Shapes Modern Human Cranium and Brain nature.com/articles/s4159…
Neanderthal ancestry drives evolution of lipid catabolism in contemporary Europeans nature.com/articles/ncomm…
Deodorant sales in the United States: $4.5 billion in 2016
Deodorant sales in China’s total: $110 million.

80-90% of East Asian populations have a mutation in a gene called ABCC11 that minimizes body odor.

nytimes.com/2018/02/02/bus…
"Human Biological and Psychological Diversity", Winegard et al 2017: link.springer.com/article/10.100…
Positive selection in Europeans and East-Asians at the ABCA12 gene biorxiv.org/content/early/…
Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?a…
Recent human evolution: more on the Tibetan altitude adaptations: "Detecting past and ongoing natural selection among ethnically Tibetan women at high altitude in Nepal", Jeong et al 2018: journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/a… (via @gwern)
Recent human evolution: convergent evolution of hobbits & contemporary pygmies on Flores Island: "Evolutionary history and adaptation of a human pygmy population of Flores Island, Indonesia", Tucci et al 2018: gwern.net/docs/genetics/… (via @gwern)
Genomic Analyses from Non-invasive Prenatal Testing Reveal Genetic Associations, Patterns of Viral Infections, and Chinese Population History cell.com/cell/fulltext/…
The sweet thing about Type 1 diabetes: a cryoprotective evolutionary adaptation. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15893109
The following propositions are not mutually exclusive:

1. There exist inalienable human rights.

2. There exist genetically determined differences between human populations.
The Truth Shall Make You Free: Ethics and average differences between groups. infoproc.blogspot.com/2018/10/the-tr…
"Genetic Consequences of Social Stratification in Great Britain", Abdellaoui et al 2018 [genetically-selective emigration & geographic patterns on education & other traits] biorxiv.org/content/early/… (via @gwern )
Machine learning spots natural selection at work in human genome: nature.com/articles/d4158…

When they tested it on real human-genome data, the algorithm zeroed in on the lactase mutations that allow adults to drink milk.
"...we predicted genetic ancestry from rs-fMRI connectivity data at very high performance (area under the ROC curve of 0.93). Thereby, we demonstrated that genetic ancestry is encoded in the functional connectivity pattern of the brain at rest." biorxiv.org/content/early/…
Selection For Rs3827760 At EDAR (“Shovel-Shaped” Incisor SNP) During Holocene Around The “Ring Of Fire” gnxp.com/WordPress/2018…
The three-dimensional geometry of the cortical surface is highly predictive of individuals’ genetic ancestry cell.com/current-biolog…
How Stifling Debate Around Race, Genes and IQ Can Do Harm link.springer.com/article/10.100…

By equating scientific statements with racism, those seeking to stifle debate commit the moralistic fallacy of concluding that a statement cannot be true if it has unpleasant moral implications.
Race- and Sex-Related Differences in Retinal Thickness and Foveal Pit Morphology ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…
Genetic engineering will eventually deal a death blow to any form of racism because any population differences, real or imaginary, will be seen as solely aesthetic and voluntary.
James Flynn on Academic Freedom and Race: scottbarrykaufman.com/wp-content/upl…

"There should be no academic sanctions against those who believe that were environments equalized, genetic differences between black and white Americans would mean that blacks have an IQ deficit."
Neandertal genes influence brain development of modern humans: mpg.de/12565720/1207-…

DNA fragments from Neandertals in the human genome shed light on brain evolution.
Neanderthal DNA affects ethnic differences in immune response: nature.com/news/neanderth…

Two gene-expression studies could explain why people of African descent respond more strongly to infection, and are more prone to autoimmune diseases.
What Did Neanderthals Leave to Modern Humans? Some Surprises
Does race exist? ~ Is Pluto a planet?

"Regardless of what we discover about the genetic variation of humans, it is clear that all humans should be treated as equal as an ethical principle. It is not dependent upon the fact that race does not exist." theness.com/neurologicablo…
Strong selective sweeps before 45,000BP displaced archaic admixture across the human X chromosome: biorxiv.org/content/early/…

"The X chromosome in non-African populations has less diversity and less Neanderthal introgression than expected."
The patch that 'cures' the 'Asian glow': Users delighted by product that means they don't go red when they drink alcohol dailymail.co.uk/health/article…

The patch is designed to reduce the flush red that around 40 percent of East Asians experience when they drink due to a mutated gene.
Project BluStar.NRW is looking for blood and stem cell donors among and for people with certain migration backgrounds in Germany because of genetically determined incompatibilities with European populations www1.wdr.de/nachrichten/rh…
Race matters when a patient needs a stem cell or marrow transplant washingtonpost.com/national/healt…

“Tell me where your ancestors lived 500 years ago, and I’ll tell you who your potential donors are,” says Jeffrey Chell, an internist who leads the National Marrow Donor Program
'One of the more painful spectacles of modern science is that of human geneticists piously disavowing the existence of races even as they investigate the genetic relationships between "ethnic groups."' nytimes.com/2005/03/14/opi…
"...it's important to recognize that the prior likelihood that human population groups would be 100% psychologically the same is virtually zero."
Human extremophiles: the people of the Atacama whose drinking water contains 20x the safe limit of arsenic, evolved an adaptation to metabolize arsenic. nytimes.com/2015/03/13/sci…
The Intersection of Race and Blood nytimes.com/2019/05/14/wel…

Blood can be racially or ethnically specific, so having more blood donors in certain groups can be crucial for saving the lives of patients who share their backgrounds.
In another example of the uncanny abilities of artificial intuition, this machine learning model can predict skin tone, age, and facial features simply by listening to a recording of that person speaking. arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09773…
"Impact and Evolutionary Determinants of Neanderthal Introgression on Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation", Silvert et al 2019 gwern.net/docs/genetics/…
New kinship and FST estimates reveal higher levels of differentiation in the global human population biorxiv.org/content/10.110…
Are Racial Classifications Arbitrary? medium.com/@NoahCarl/are-…
Multiple lines of mysterious ancient humans interbred with us nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/0…

"Denisovans may be not one, but three distinct kinds of human, one of which is almost as different from other Denisovans as they are from Neanderthals."

via the awesome @SteveStuWill
Changes in Biological Pathways During 6,000 Years of Civilization in Europe researchgate.net/publication/32…

Holocene Selection for Variants Associated With General Cognitive Ability: Comparing Ancient and Modern Genomes cambridge.org/core/journals/…
Researchers have identified two Neanderthal gene variants linked to slightly less globular head shape in living people. The genes also influence brain organization, offering a clue to how evolution acting on the brain might have reshaped the skull. sciencemag.org/news/2018/12/w…
Japanese have significant lower risks of cardiovascular diseases. Yet the difference is not explained with normal risk factors such as cholesterol (which is higher in Japan) or blood pressure (higher in Japan). ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.116…
Multiple Measures Reveal The Value of Both Race And Geographic Ancestry For Self-Identification biorxiv.org/content/10.110…

"There is a place for the language of both race and geographic ancestry as we seek to empower individuals to fully describe their family history."
Review of Angela Saini's book ‘Superior’: "All four of the book's primary assertions on race are riddled with scientific misunderstandings and logical fallacies." geneticliteracyproject.org/2019/07/15/vie…
Neanderthal clues to brain evolution in humans
For what it's worth, here is my layman's take on the question of genetically determined cognitive population differences. axisofordinary.tumblr.com/post/186584192…
Unequal by nature: a geneticist’s perspective on human differences amacad.org/publication/un…

"Two populations may have a large overlap and differ only slightly in their means. Still, the most outstanding individuals will tend to come from the population with the higher mean."
Natural selection contributed to immunological differences between hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists nature.com/articles/s4155…
Missing some Tweet in this thread?
You can try to force a refresh.

Like this thread? Get email updates or save it to PDF!

Subscribe to Alexander Kruel
Profile picture

Get real-time email alerts when new unrolls are available from this author!

This content may be removed anytime!

Twitter may remove this content at anytime, convert it as a PDF, save and print for later use!

Try unrolling a thread yourself!

how to unroll video

1) Follow Thread Reader App on Twitter so you can easily mention us!

2) Go to a Twitter thread (series of Tweets by the same owner) and mention us with a keyword "unroll" @threadreaderapp unroll

You can practice here first or read more on our help page!

Follow Us on Twitter!

Did Thread Reader help you today?

Support us! We are indie developers!


This site is made by just three indie developers on a laptop doing marketing, support and development! Read more about the story.

Become a Premium Member ($3.00/month or $30.00/year) and get exclusive features!

Become Premium

Too expensive? Make a small donation by buying us coffee ($5) or help with server cost ($10)

Donate via Paypal Become our Patreon

Thank you for your support!