According to the Puranas, this country is known as Bharatavarsha after  Bharata, the son of Rishabha. This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana , Vayu Purana , Linga Purana , Brahmanda , Agni , Skanda Purana, Khanda and Markandaya Purana all using the designation Bharata Varsha.
Vishnu Purāna mentions:

ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत्भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्

Rishabha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabha,Bharatavarsha (India) arose from Bharata and Sumati arose from Bharata.—Vishnu Purana (2,1,31)
ततश्च भारतं वर्षमेतल्लोकेषुगीयतेभरताय यत: पित्रा दत्तं प्रतिष्ठिता वनम (विष्णु पुराण, २,१,३२)
This country is known as Bharatavarsha since the times the father entrusted the kingdom to the son Bharata and he himself went to the forest for ascetic practices
—Vishnu Purana (2,1,32)
uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।
"The country (varṣam) that lies north of the oceanand south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."

—Vishnu Purana
The Srimad Bhagavat Purana mentions

(Canto 5, Chapter 4)[24] -

"He (Rishabha) begot a hundred sons that were exactly like him... He (Bharata) had the best qualities and it was because of him that this land by the people is called Bhârata-varsha"
The Bhāratas were also a Vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.

Bharata Khanda  is a term used in  the  Vedas,  Mahabharata,  Ramayana, to describe the geographic region that encompassed the modern countries of  Afghanistan,  Bangladesh,  India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar—that is, South Asia at the term's furthest extent.
According to Texts, before India was called Bhāratavarṣa, it was known as Nābhivarṣa (नाभिवर्ष, land of Nabhi). King Nabhi was a  Chakravartin  (Universal Sovereign of India) and father of Arihant Rishabha.
Tianzhu or Tenjiku (originally pronounced xien-t'juk) is the historical East Asian name for India that comes from the Chinese transliteration of the Persian Hindu, which itself is derived from the Sanskrit Sindhu, the native name of the Indus River.
Tianzhu is one of several Chinese transliterations of Sindhu. Shendu  appears in Sima Qian's Shiji and Tiandu  is used in the Hou Hanshu (Book of the Later Han). Yintejia comes from the Kuchean Indaka, another transliteration of Hindu.
A detailed account of Tianzhu is given in the "Xiyu Zhuan" (Record of the Western Regions) in the Hou Hanshu compiled by Fan Ye (398–445):
Tianzhu was also referred to as Wutianzhu (literally "Five Indias"), because there were five geographical regions in India known to the Chinese: Central, Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern India. The monk Xuanzang also referred to India as Wu Yin or "Five Inds".
The term is also used in Japan, where it is pronounced as Tenjiku. The foreign loanwords Indo and India are also used in some cases. The current Japanese name for modern India is the foreign loanword Indo .

The current Chinese word for India is Yindu .
Writers throughout history, both Indian and of other nationalities have written about a 'Greater India', which Indians have called either Akhand Bharat or Mahabharata.
As per

"El-Mas'udi Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar"

The Hindu nation (Al-Hind) extends from the mountains of Khorasan (Afghanistan) and of es-Sind (Baluchistan) as far as et-Tubbet (Tibetan Plateau.)"
As per
"Friar Jordanus Catalani"

What shall I say? The greatness of this India is beyond description. But let this much suffice concerning India the Greater and the Less. Of India Tertia I will say this, that I have not indeed seen its many marvels, not having been there...
As per

Abu'l-Fazl in Ain-i-Akbari

"Hindustan is described as enclosed on the east, west and south by the ocean, but Sarandip (Sri Lanka), Achin (Indonesia), Maluk (Indonesia) and Malagha (Malaysia) and a considerable number of islands are accounted for within its extent."
As per Ignazio Danti

"The part of India beyond the Ganges extends in length as far as Cathay (China) and contains many provinces in which are found many notable things. As in the Kingdom of Kamul near Campichu (Cambodia)...And in Erguiul...In the Ava Mountains (Burma)......
In C 1328,As per Friar Jordanus Catalani

"What shall I say? The greatness of this India is beyond description. But let this much suffice concerning India the Greater and the Less.Of India Tertia I will say this, that I have not indeed seen its many marvels, not having been there
Jambudvipa ( "berry island") was used in ancient scriptures for the name of India before Bhārata became the official name. The derivative Jambu Dwipa was the historical term for India in many Southeast Asian countries before the colonial introduction of the English word "India".
This alternate name is still used occasionally in Thailand, Malaysia, Java and Bali to describe the Indian Subcontinent. However, it also can refer to the continent of Asia.
According to Texts, before India was called Bhāratavarṣa, it was known as Nābhivarṣa (नाभिवर्ष, land of Nabhi). King Nabhi was a  Chakravartin  (Universal Sovereign of India) and father of Arihant Rishabha (Jainism).
राजा भरत की और जम्बूदीप की कहानी आप यहां भी पढ़ सकते हैं।

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