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Aabhas K Maldahiyar @Aabhas24
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@vivekagnihotri unfortunately we have enough evidence that keeps the so called ‘Scientific History’ of cabals including Irfan Habib, Romila Thapar exposed. I look to develop this into a thread to expose them in regards to rig-Veda dating. Shall follow in a while. 1/n
2/n @vivekagnihotri Rigveda is the oldest & the most important document of India’s past composed by Rishis & Rishikas. William Jones a judge to SC of Calcutta (1783) decided to pay close attention to Sanskrit as well as the Hindu Law.
3/n Jones’ translations of some Sanskrit texts appeared in Europe. To the extent that Friedrich Schlegel, an ardent member of the German Romantic Movement, posited in 1808 that in his opinion Sanskrit was the parent of all related languages.
4/n Germans and Austrians felt very strongly that the ‘Indo-European’ had to be European.The discovery of the Saraswati-Indus Civilization besides a new emerging image of a ‘superior’ Indo-Euro race was not only fortuitous but also unwelcome to the British colonists.
5/n John Marshall,the DG of the ASI, when announcing this new discovery (SIVC)to the world,could not hide his predicament about the racial origins of the people who had created such an advanced Civilization.
6/n Marshall (1926)asserted : “The most plausible view, however, is that they were the pre-Aryan people of India, whose more developed civilization was destroyed by the Nordic invasions of the 3rd & 2nd millennium B.C.”
7/n He laid the foundation for racial identity of the people who had founded the great SIVC with bare chance that the colonial image of the Dravidians being the dark skinned, flat nosed aborigines of India will ever be questioned or abrogated.
8/n Accordingly, it would be the white skinned Nordic people who will bring Sanskrit &the Vedic Tradition to India. Initial examination of the human remains from Mohenjo-daro, had resulted in identification of four racial types, a distinction which was never confirmed.
9/n Stuart Piggott who had expressed repulsion at the Harappan civilization could not conceal his disdain when he described the four racial types as ‘Mediterranean, Alpine, Mongoloid & the “black underdog” Proto-Australoid’.
10/n The ‘black underdog’ Proto-Australoid,to Piggott (1950)being none other than the Dravidian,a stereotype that will from then on remain entrenched in the European mindset as the racial prototype of all S-Asians,including the founders of the great civilization
11/n The dating of Rigveda has been tainted by the same colonial bias that has controlled the western mindset & also Indian left view. In this thread I demonstrate 3 pieces of latest scientific evidence for the period of composition of Rigveda.
12/n A)The drying of river Sarasvati around 2000-1900 BCE (Giosan et al. 2013)
B)The dates of early 17th century for presence of Mittani in north Mesopotamia
C)As terminus ante quem for all the Vedic texts,Ramayana & Mahabharata, Buddha and Mahavira
13/n Muller(1859)has been credited with being the 1st to propose a date for the period of composition of Rig Veda (1200-1000 BCE).He assigned the Sutra texts to 600-200 BCE,earliest Brahmanas to 800-600BCE, the hymns of Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda to about1000-800 BCE.
14/n Aski Parpola (2015)very strongly criticised the Muller’s. J.P. Mallory, a torch bearer of European cause,& a naive Sanskritist appropriated a date of 1500-1000 BCE for the origin of Sanskrit language (Mallory and Adams 2006: 15) though he failed to provide substance.
15/n Indirectly he meant that the seeds & kernels of the language were sown in 1500 BCE,from which texts like R-Veda finally came into existence.A-Veda offers us critical evidence 2 prove that not only it was composed a long time aftr R-Veda,but that it also post dates all opuses
16/n There are many peculiarities of Atharva Veda such as the fictitious names of the authors, plagiarizing of Rig Veda hymns in a heedless manner, haphazard ordering of the verses & a shift to a younger language.
17/n About 22% of the hymns are devoted to magic spells, incantations,curses,description of ailments & their remedies.But it is the misappropriation of the Rig Veda hymns which has fooled western scholars into believing that the language of A-Veda was closer to that of R-Veda.
18/n Following are explanations wrt to Atharva Veda:
A)Language relationship
Out of total of 143 hymns & 942 verses in the last section,93% of hymns and 84% of verses show exact 100% match with corresponding hymns of Rig Veda.
19/n The frequency of such concordances drop as we move towards earlier sections.Although 30%of hymns in the next section 19 are on spells &remedies,hymn 6 is an almost perfect match to the famous Purusha Sukta of R-Veda(10.90), with the exception of mismatches in the order.
20/n B)Chronological position of Atharva Veda:
There is no mention of Atharva Veda in Yajur Veda, Aitareya Brahmana and Shatapatha Brahmana. The Rig Veda, Sama Veda & Yajur Veda are mentioned 14 times in Atharva Veda,the Brahmanas on 4 & Purana on 2 occasions.
21/n The composers of A-Veda were also familiar with the 2 great epics. Of 3 well known figures from Ramayana & Mahabharata, Kubera is mentioned in K10.5.10 and 11, Narada, who has been given imp in many texts dating from Ramayana onwards in K12.4.42 & Dhritarashtra, in K10.5.15
22/n This evidence thus tells us that the two epics, Ramayana & Mahabharata were composed well before Atharva Veda, especially Ramayana, as in K10.2.31, the capital Ayodhya is described as the ‘city of Gods’.
23/n C)Geography
Verse (K5.22.14) shud leave no one in doubt that A-Veda was composed when the Vedic tradition had moved farthest east beyond the ‘kuru’ and ‘panchal’ lands or the modern state of Haryana in north-west India & the neighbouring western part of the state of U.P.
24/n These are the lands of the composers of the Yaju&Sama Samhitas,the Brahmanas,the Aranyakas as well as the Upanishads.The hymn K5 talks abt the distribution of ‘krimi’ or worms that infested the human body, make mention of four regions in verse K5.22.14.:
25/n 1)Gandhara’
2)Mujavat’ as yet unidentified mountainous region east to Gandhara, where the soma of Rigveda is said to have grown.
3)‘Magadha’ modern Bihar province of north-east India. 4. ‘Anga’ modern Bengal in the extreme north east of India.
26/n Mention of ‘Magadha’is most significant as it allows us to date the period of AtharvaVeda to the time of Mahavira, Buddha, Bimbisar and Ajatshatru, or late seventh to early sixth century BCE... continued from 27/n
27/n The biggest hurdles to placing the composition of R-Veda earlier than the 2nd millennium has bn the apocryphal belief,nt supported by any evidence,that Sarasvati hd ceased to exist & that it was a name of a mythical river in Iran that ws given to a driedup river bed in India
28/n The fact that a river in the same location as the dried up river bed has been described in hymn 10.75 in R-Veda has been dismissed as a piece of Palaeo-reincarnation. But the recent advances enable us to refute this baseless supposition.
29/n Very heavy concentration of Indus Civilization sites, more than anywhere else on both banks of what is now a dried up river bed, archaeologists believe, could not have been sustained if these sites had no water source to subsist on.
30/n Views of Indian archaeologists that the title ‘Indus Civilization’ was no longer acceptable and that there were cogent reasons for replacing it with ‘Indus-Sarasvati Civilization’, have recently received resounding support from a British archaeologist, Jane McIntosh.
31/n The basis for this claim rests on discovery of an increasing no of new sites in what was once a geographically massive Indus Civilization. A picture is emerging that the Vedic Sarasvati ws a geographical & historical reality & was dominantly monsoon fed.
32/n passage from Liviu Giosan and colleagues:
“Finally, our research points to a perennial monsoonalfed Sarasvati river system with benign floods along its course, which could well be considered imp for early agricultural civilizations such as the Harappan...
33/nA novel analysis of the RVeda by Aklujkar paints exactly such a picture of a benevolent river wd multiple courses affecting a wide area,which wud certainly explain the amazing density of settlements across the Saraswati interfluve rather than only alng definite river courses.
34/n This description conforms well to the model that is slowly emerging for the Sarasvati, a perennial monsoonal river with many feeding streams in its headwaters with mild and nourishing floods when compared to the Indus or its large Himalayan tributaries.
35/n This is a testament to the acuity of the Rig Veda composers who transmitted to us across millennia such an incredibly accurate description of a grand river.Aklujkjar has invalidated claims that hymns of Bharadvaja & Vasishtha were no more than a figment of their imagination.
36/n claims made by Asko Parpola in his recent book that the hymns of Rig Veda were composed in Afghanistan & that river Haetumant of younger Avesta is the real Sarasvati is absurd.
37/n Taking cognizance of the fact the process of desiccation of the river Sarasvati occurred slowly over a period of time, according to latest evidence from about 4200-3900 years ago, we can with confidence place the last phases of composition of Rig Veda to around 2000-1900 BCE
38/n The Vedic Tradition would then move further east to the ‘kuru’ ‘panchal’ lands where,as defined earlier,many of the post RVeda corpora were composed.Another piece of archaeo evidence that is entirely in keeping with the end of the RVeda tradition by the end of 3rdmill BCE.
39/n Mittani, like the Hittites had created a powerful empire in mid second millennium Near East.Their identity as IndoAryans has been based on scant traces of the language they spoke and their worship of four Vedic gods (Indra, Varuna, Mitra and Nasatya) in cuneiform texts.
40/n Mittani spoke a dialect like Prakrit and were masters of horse management and chariotry. The evidence dated to early seventeenth century BCE, that they had arrived from India is provided by the discovery of two zebu bull figurines in the lowest levels at Tell Brak.
41/n It also appears more than probable that they may have been present in north Mesopotamia as early as 1760 BCE.
42/n The moment we approach the subject of the period of composition of RVeda & the alleged migration of the bearers of the Vedic sect & its lang We r confronted with 2 fundamental qns:
43/n 1)Period over which languages evolve: When western scholars glibly assume that they have the power to determine the age of any language as they feel ‘fit’, then all they manage to do is to expose a striking deficit of insight, logic and sound reasoning.
44/n Further, we are not informed if these dates refer to the period when RVeda was composed or over which Sanskrit evolved. Languages take a considerable time to evolve, measured in millennia and not centuries from their elementary primitive blocks to a final literal form.
45/n Sanskrit of RVeda was already a full fledged language,with its vocabulary & structure so full, extensive & complete to become the bedrock on which all later compositions wud stand.
46/n A point pithily made by William Jones in his 1786 discourse ‘The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either’.
Let’s move to second question.
47/n 2)Preservation of and memory of past life and culture in the lands of origin: Archaeologists making a case for the origin of the Vedic tradition and Sanskrit in southern Russia or Central Asia have made wanton misuse of textual material...continues
48/n... from RVeda, misinterpreting poor & indifferent translations not aware that Rig Veda was composed in north-west South Asia in parts of what is now the Punjab in both Pakistan & India, lands further north-west of Punjab &east as far as the river Ganga in central-north India
49/n Even traces of memory of landmarks like rivers, mountains,seasons&climate etc wud hv made the case for migration much stronger than it is.Not only that remains of the same Vedic tradition evn in its most slenderest of vestigial form in C-Asia wud hv offered stronger evidence
50/n Wt we have bn offered as evidence is absurdities like the horse remains with human burials at Sintashta in Russia with the horse sacrifice ‘ashvamedha’described in RVeda, totally out of context &result of callow intelligence,as ‘ashvamedha’ wd nevr a part of funeral rites.
51/n If the Central Asians did indeed bring the VedicTradition to India then the only way this seismic transformation in the cultural scene in India can b explained is by a massive migration or invasion,resulting in a total population replacement & total ‘emptying out’ of CenAsia
I illustrate with following points:
Firstly,the position of Sindhu in their life was so important that it became a generic name for body of waters, rivers & even a celestial deity.
53/n Then we have a recurrent use of Sindhu in ref to the figurative &often mentioned phrase ‘seven rivers’ as ‘saptasindhvaha’ or ‘saptasindhuna’. Surely, the Central Asian migrants would have remembered the ancient name of the Oxus River.
54/n The river on whose banks the Oxus civilization, also known as the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) was based. Revealing is the fact that we see no record, whether written or in memory, of what Oxus River was called by the migrants. It certainly was not Sindhu.
55/n Next, Sindhu had changed its course and started flowing in the wrong direction towards the north.Grit Samada in RV 2.15.6 says:sah udancam sindhum arinat mahitva(Indra with his might (powers) made Sindhu flow upwards (to the north).
56/n Indra is again praised for probably what was a major cataclysmic event that had occurred in remote past the memory of which will never be forgotten as the name ‘vritra’ vanquished by Indra will be recounted in texts as late as the two epics & Atharva Veda.
57/n Hiranyastupa, a son of Angira (1.31.11) has described an event in hymn 1.32 in Rig Veda, of an evil being,a snake like creature (ahi) obstructing the flow of rivers. This is the gist of this event (the verse numbers are in parenthesis):
58/n Hiranyastupa starts off by saying that ‘I will describe feats of greatness performed by Indra in the earliest times (1) Living in the mountains, ahi had surrounded & obstructed the flow of rivers & Indra with the vajra made for him by tvashta smote vritra, the obstructer
59/n (2)Hit by Indra’s vajra vritra fell on earth(5)&fell 2the bottom of rivers still obstructing the flow(8)his mother tried 2shield him by lying above him,bt Indra ws able to get through 2vritra,evn when he was underneath(9)& finally the flow of the seven rivers was restored’.
60/n What Hiranyastupa has described as an event that took in ancient times was the result of a glacier blocking the flow of Sindhu and its tributaries in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, close to the origin of Sindhu.
61/n This is indubitable proof that the composers of Rig Veda not only knew the geography from the earliest times, but also remembered such events, a testament of their long domicile in ancient India.
62/n Now let’s look at few genetic evidences:
Two components of genetic material have been used to obtain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA (maternal) and the male gene, the Y chromosome and of the two, mtDNA has a longer life span.
63/n Study of DNA has revolutionized our understanding of our past and has confirmed that we came out of Africa. Sub-Saharan Africans hold the oldest mtDNA lineage, L3, followed by M2 and other M lineages which are concentrated in India with a time depth of about ~ 70,000 years.
64/n Geneticists from Tartu University led by T Kivisild in a ground breaking study reported that the genetic profile of the Indian tribal pepl suggested that India had acted as an incubator of early genetic differentiation of modern humans moving out of Africa.
65/n ‘The phylogeographic patterns of the Y chromosome and mtDNA support the concept that the Indian subcontinent played a pivotal role in
the late Pleistocene genetic differentiation of the western and eastern Eurasian gene pools’ (Kivisild et al. 2003)
66/n These results were never accepted by the western geneticists and efforts have continued to be made, most notably by the geneticists from the Max Planck institute in Germany to undermine what the Tartu group had achieved.
67/n More recently attempts have been made to prove that what was determined as the Indian genes by the Tartu group and many others are not indigenous to India.
68/n Then David Reich & his Harvard team in their 2nd 2013 paper, confidently asserted that Reich’s earlier division of Indian populations into two groups, the ANI (Ancient North Indians) and ASI (Ancient South Indians) was confirmed (Moorjani et al. 2013)
69/n In this paper they suggested on the strength of study of Indian autosomes that a constant stream of migrations & invasions had taken place over 2000 years (from about 4000 years to 2000 years ago).
70/n A closer look at the data & inference made the situation clearer &revealed a most startlingly alarming scenario,where these hordes of invaders relentlessly over a period of 2K years went straight dn to AP in order to copulate wd the females of the Madiga,Mala& Chenchu tribes
71/n As a result produced the founding fathers of not only all ANI but also of the Pathan & Sindhi populations of Pakistan.That this assertion had taken no account of the geography of South Asia was obvious.
72/n As what ws being proposed by the Harvard team ws that these foreign invaders,without break over 2k years,had traversed thru Afgh,Paki,Punjb followed by Raj,UP,then Gujarat,MP,Maha & Vidarbha,hvng not com across a single female to mate with as if the entire landmass was empty
73/n The ludicrous absurdity of this scheme will not be lost on us Indians for the simple reason that the same tribal people have never been known to have come in contact with settled societies until recently.
74/n The findings:a result of manipulation & concoction of the data,were intended to neatly ‘fit’ the western view of arrival of Indo-Europeans from out of India & the time line as predicated by the Aryan Invasion of the second millennium BCE.
75/n It is most regrettable, I feel, that the geneticists belonging to the C.C.M.B. Hyderabad, who were the co-authors of this paper failed to see the political agenda behind Reich’s devious intentions and designs.
76/n The Chenchu were targeted because the Tartu University geneticists had shown that they possessed some mtDNA & Y chromosome lineages that were older & so ancestral to many western lineages.Regrettably,these findings cant b overturned until ancient DNA from India is examined.
76/n I wish people like @irfhabib Romila Thapar stop shoving agendas into our reality. @narendramodi the gov must take an initiative & @ncert book be revised. @PrakashJavdekar @HRDMinistry @RatanSharda55
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