#KnowVedas2 ,In this second post of series I talk about origin and dating of Vedas. This is in continuation to first post where I spoke about first shloka of Rig Veda. Read thread(right now 25 tweets but will be expanded by tonight)👇🏼cc @Sanjay_Dixit @vivekagnihotri @sankrant
2/n Veda means knowledge. The word comes from the Sanskrit language and is derived from the verb root vid, 'to know'. Originally the Vedas were composed in Sanskrit. There are two types of Sanskrit, vaidika and laukika.
3/n The Vedic Sanskrit is called vaidika and it is more complicated both in its grammar and in the use of certain words which are only found in the Vedas. The worldly or more popular Sanskrit is called laukika. This is the language of the puranas and itihasas.
4/n The Vedas themselves dont say so much about their origin & purpose .The most celebrated and well known part of the Vedas is undoubtedly the Rg-Veda. The word rg comes from the verb root rc, meaning 'to praise'.
5/n From the same root comes a feminine noun rc,which means 'praise' or 'verse',especially a sacred verse recited in praise of a deity. Thus we can understand the direct meaning of Rg-Veda to be 'The knowledge of sacred recitation'or, as stated in the dictionary,’Veda of praise'.
6/n The Rg-Veda, which is most likely the most ancient literature in the world, consists of 1017 hymns. If the Valakhilya hymns are included the total number is 1028. The hymns are arranged in eight Astakas or ten Mandalas.
7/n Mandalas 2 to 8 contain groups of hymns,each grp ascribed to 1 author or member of a particular Rsi family.The 9th Mandala contains the hymns sung at the soma ceremonies.The 1st & 10th Mandalas are somewhat diff in their language & thought to be composed by a varied authors.
8/n I will discuss the dating of the Rg-Veda at a later stage of this thread or may be in part-2.

In Western scholarship it has been vogue to ignore the authoritative statements that the Vedas make about themselves & to instead speculate who, when and why composed them.
9/n In the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10 it is said:

asya mahato bhUtasya niHzvasitam etad yad
Rgvedo yajurvedaH sAmavedo 'tharvAGgirasa
itihAsaH purANaM vidyA upaniSadaH zlokAH sUtrANy
AnuvyAkhyAnAn yasyaiva itAni niHzvasitAni
Meaning 👇🏼
10/n "The four Vedas - namely the Rg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, Itihasas, Puranas, Vidyas, Upanisads, slokas, sutras, anuvakas - are all emanations from the breathing of the great Personality of Godhead."
11/n similarly 4.5.11 In the Bhagavata Purana it is said:

vedo nArAyaNa sAksAt svayambhUr iti zuzruma
“The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, and are self-born."
12/n (Bh.P. 6.1.40)
The same reference also explains the purpose of the Vedas:
veda-pranihito dharmo hy adharmas tad viparyayaH

"That which is prescribed in the Vedas constitutes dharma, the religious principles, and the opposite of that is Adharmic."
13/n Now it might be argued that these are simply quotes from Upanisads & Puranas,which are not exactly part of the Vedas,let alone the Rg Veda itself.

However,the Upanisads are accepted as belonging to the Vedas, infact,they are taken to be the actual explanations of the Vedas.
14/n Each Veda has a set of Upanisads associated with it. I’ll give exact description of the structure or organization of the Vedic literature later in this thread or in part-2.
15/n The Puranas are traditionally called the 'Fifth Veda' & this too will be established by authoritative quotes from the Vedic literature.
16/n As a preliminary argument let us say that those statements about the origin & purpose of the Vedas, which are quoted from Puranic or Vedic references, should be given a far greater credibility & authority than the whimsical speculations of modern scholars.
17/n As they are much closer to the original Vedic culture, not only by date and by location, but also on account of the spiritual practice of their compilers and propounders.

Below text (Bh.P. 11.21.35-42) gives an esoteric explanation of the Vedic path.
veda brahmatma-visayas tri-kanda-visaya ime
paroksa-vada rsayah paroksa mama ca priyam

sabda-brahma su-durbodha pranendriya-mano-mayam
ananta-para gambhira durvigahya samudra-vat

mayopabrmhita bhumna brahmanananta-saktina
bhutesu ghosa-rupena visesurneva laksyate
19/n yathornanabhir hrdayad urnam udvamate mukhat
akasad ghosavan prano manasa sparsa-rupina

chando-mayo 'mrta-mayah sahasra-padavi prabhuh
omkarad vyanjita-sparsa-svarosmantastha-bhusitam

vicitra-bhasa-vitata chandobhis catur-uttaraih
ananta-para brhati srjaty aksipate svayam
gayatry usnig anustup ca brhati panktir eva ca
tristub jagaty aticchando hy atyasty-atijagad-virat

ki vidhatte kim acaste kim anudya vikalpayet
ity asya hrdaya loke nanyo mad veda kascana

21/n "The Vedas, divided into three divisions, ultimately reveal the living entity as pure spirit soul. The Vedic seers and mantras, however, deal in esoteric terms, and I [Krishna] also am pleased by such confidential descriptions.
22/n The transcendental sound of the Vedas is very difficult to comprehend and manifests on different levels within the prana, senses and mind. This Vedic sound is unlimited, very deep and unfathomable, just like the ocean.
23/n As the unlimited,unchanging & omnipotent Personality of Godhead dwelling within all living beings,I personally establish the Vedic sound vibration in the form of omkara within all living entities. It is thus perceived subtly,just like one strand of fiber on a lotus stalk.
24/n Just as a spider brings forth from its heart its web & emits it through its mouth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as the reverberating primeval vital air, comprising all sacred Vedic meters and full of transcendental pleasure.
25/n Thus the Lord, from the ethereal sky of His heart, creates the great and limitless Vedic sound by the agency of His mind, which conceives of variegated sounds such as the sparsas...contd from 26/n
26/n The Vedic sound branches out in thousands of directions, adorned with the different letters expanded from the syllable om: the consonants, vowels, sibilants and semivowels.
27/n The Veda is then elaborated by many verbal varieties, expressed in different meters, each having four more syllables than the previous one. Ultimately the Lord again withdraws His manifestation of Vedic sound within Himself.
28/n The Vedic meters are Gayatri, Usnik, Anustup, Brhati, Pankti, Tristup, Jagati, Aticchanda, Atyasti, Atijagati and Ativirat. In the entire world no one but Me actually understands the confidential purpose of Vedic knowledge.
29/nThus people dont know what the Vedas actually prescribe in the ritualistic injunctions of karma-kanda or what object is actually being indicated in the formulas of worship found in the upasana-kanda or that whic is discussd in various hypotheses in the jnana-kanda of Vedas”
30/n As per Vedic knowledge,the Vedic sound is divided into 4 phases, which can be understood only by the most intelligent brahmanas.This is bcoz 3 of the divisions are internally situated within the living entity and only the fourth division is externally manifested, as speech.
31/n Even this fourth phase of Vedic sound, called vaikhari, is very difficult to understand for ordinary human beings.
32/n The prana phase of Vedic sound, known as para, is situated in the adhara-cakra; the mental phase, known as pasyanti, is situated in the area of the navel, on the manipuraka-cakra; the intellectual phase, known as madhyama, is situated in the heart area, in the anahata-cakra.
33/n Finally, the manifest sensory phase of Vedic sound is called vaikhari. Such Vedic sound is ananta-para because it comprehends all vital energies within the universe and beyond and is thus undivided by time or space.
34/n In his book Gods, Sages and Kings, @davidfrawleyved explains the position of the sacred syllable om in the text of the Rg-Veda. He writes:👇🏼
35/n "While we dont find om mentioned specifically in the Rg-Veda,there is throughout the book an emphasis on the sacred word or chant,the mantras as the power whereby the Gods are revealed.This sacred word could very well hv been om.Lets see how later texts indicate that it was.
36/n The Upanisads state:

Who is the bull of the chants, possessing all forms, who from the immortal chants was born, may that Indra deliver me with wisdom. (Taittiriya Up. 1.3.1)
37/n "The 'bull of chants' is om It is identified with Indra,the foremost of the Vedicgods. Indra in the Rg-Veda conquers the powers of darkness with the Divine Word of Brahman. Om is also called Brahman.A famous verse of Vamadeva from the Rg-Veda describes the bull of chants as:
38/n Four are his horns, three are his feet, two are his heads and seven are his hands. Bound threefold the bull roars, the mighty God has entered into mortals. (IV.58.2, Mahanarayana Up. IX.1, Bh.P. 8.16.31)
39/n "This is said by various commentators like Sayana to be an explanation of om. Om in the Upanisads is said to have four quarters, referring to the four states of waking, dream, deep sleep, and pure consciousness.
40/n The various mathematical versions of the chant and the sacrifice in the Rg-Veda are the various levels of vibration of om. The seven seers are the seven energies of om. Indra is the power of om. The sun is the light of om. The Sama-Veda is the song of the sun... which is om.
Dirghatamas states in the Rg-Veda:

The sacred syllable of the chant in the supreme ether in which all the gods reside, he who does not know that, what can he do with the Veda? (I.164.39)

"That sacred syllable on which the Vedas rest is om."
42/n So far David Frawley's conclusion. It is easy to simply say something about the Vedas. Hardly anybody knows Sanskrit well enough to follow up such claims.
43/n But, for the sake of getting a balanced presentation, lets look up D Frawley ‘s refe and see in which context it appears&what earlier Indian commentators had to say about it. I use the Ramakrsna Matha edition of the Mahanarayanopanisad, which was published in Madras 1957.
44/n The translation and commentary are by Svami Vimalananda who himself closely followed Sayana's commentaries, but who also included Bhattabhaskara's interpretations which are often quite different. Sayana is an early commentator whose date is given as AD 1350-1387.
45/n He has commented on all parts of the Vedas.

In the edition that I’m using the verse appears as 12.10 and is said to be identical with Rg-Veda IV.58.3. The Sanskrit is as follows:
46/n catvari srnga trayo asya pada dvesirse sapta hastaso asya
tridha baddho vrsabho roraviti maho devo martyan avivesa

47/n "The syllable om conceived as the Bull possesses four horns, three feet and two heads. He has seven hands. This Bull connected in a threefold manner, eloquently declares the Supreme. The Self-luminous Deity has entered the mortals everywhere."
48/n This translation is very similar to the one shown above. But in his commentary Svami Vimalananda also gives two alternative interpretations. I will quote the entire commentary below.
49/n "This is the well-known allegoric stanza of the Rg-Veda IV.58.3, variously interpreted in different contexts. Patanjali in his Great Commentary on Panini explains it as representing the various flexions of speech.
50/n Bhattabhaskara takes it as a eulogistic representation of the sacrifice with auxiliaries; and Sayana here interprets it as the syllable om already metaphorized as a bull. The word vrsabha conventionally means a bull and etymologically that which rains (plenty).
51/n The meditation on Pranava is stated to confer on the aspirant spiritual riches. The vrsabha or Pranava, has four horns as indicated earlier.
52/n Om is also the Reality expressed by it; and that Reality is reached through the three feet or steps, namely, the waking, sleeping and dreaming of the individual soul, and also the universe, the soul embodied in the universe and its unevolved cause.
53/n The higher & lower aspects of Prakrti,taught in the Gita ch VII,are considered as his two heads.The 7 worlds are fancied to be his hands. Being the ground of all that exists, this vrsabha is connected with the threefold aspects of subjective & objective universe.
54/n The vrsabha or bull bellows loudly. Here the Pranava declares the Supreme Reality eloquently. This declaration here implies the presence of Paramatman in all creatures and His sustaining of them.
55/n According to Bhattabhaskara the four horns are the four adjutants of the prayer, the Adhvaryu, Hotr, Brahman, and Udgatr; the three feet are Garhapatya, Ahavaniya and Anvaharyapacana; the heads are the institutor of the sacrifice and his wife or the Prayaniya and Udayaniya.
56/n The seven metres headed by gayatri are the seven hands. The body of the prayer is bound in a threefold manner by the three savanas or ceremonies connected with the extraction of soma. The yajna grants desired objects.
57/n So it is vrsabha. The noise produced by the bull compares to the chant of the three Vedas at the prayer ritual. The Lord Himself entered human beings through the ritual in which He is worshiped."
58/n The reference is Mahanarayanopanisad 12.9, which a citation of RV IV.58.2. The Sanskrit of that section goes as follows, upa brahma srnvac chasyamana catuh srngo 'vamid gaura etat.
59/n The four-horned white bull represents the syllable om described as chandasam rsabha visvarupah in the beginning of the Taittiriyopanisad. The four horns are the four sound elements in the Pranava, A, U, M and the reverberating nasal bindu.
60/n These are the names of the three yagna Agni, the central, eastern and southern fires.

The verse in question may be interpreted as a description of the sacred syllable om, as a list of the various flexions of speech and as an example of the Vedic sacrifice itself.
61/n In all cases the ancient scholars have taken it to be a symbolic representation of a higher truth. The last part of the verse, maho devo martyan avivesa - the great Lord has entered the mortals - certainly justifies these indirect interpretations.
62/n The bull is strange enough but what does he have in common with these mortals all of a sudden? And how is this Maha-deva entering them? We have to accept that much of the Vedas is expressed in esoteric language as confirmed in the Bhagavat-Purana quoted above.
63/n It seems that the Vedas are expressing different levels of reality through one and the same text. On the lowest level one may perceive a collection of hymns, such as RV II.47.2, where Indra is requested to slay one's enemies, give victory and grant safety and fearlessness.
64/n On a higher level one might accept the hymns as descriptions of Yagna - religious rituals for the sake of economic development, heavenly pleasures or purification by pious activities. On a still higher level the sacrifice might be internalized.
65/n Indra can be taken as one particular god or as the individual self or as the Supreme Self. The descriptions are then understood in an increasingly symbolical fashion and become more similar to the yoga discourses of the Upanisads.
66/n With the above explanations and examples in mind, we may be ready to accept the statements of the puranas, which declare that the Vedas are apauruseya. A term indicating that they have no human origin.
67/n Granted, they have been received by the great Rsis, but these sages never claimed authorship. They simply propounded knowledge that had been revealed to them. They always pointed at the one Supreme Being.
68/n In order to substantiate this claim, we will have to take a closer look at the actual date of the Vedas and at such ideas as the Aryan Invasion, which propose not only a relatively young age for the Vedas but also worldly origin and purpose.
69/n @davidfrawleyved writes, "The oldest literary sources we have from the ancient Greek world are the works of Homer (c. 700 BC). From the Middle East, the oldest extant books are those of the Hebrew Bible.
70/n While parts of the Old Testament are much older, as a whole much of it was redone after 500 BC. The Gathas of Zoroaster are also old, dating from before the founding of the ancient Persian empire (525 BC), but they are later than the Vedic.
71/n They are also fragmentary since their greater portions were destroyed by the Greek and Muslim conquests of Persia. From China the oldest book is the I Ching, though only its core portions date to 1000 BC or earlier.
72/n While The Egyptian Book of the Dead is much older than these (to 3000 BC), no living tradition or record of its interpretation has survived for us.
73/n "Vedic literature thus provides us with more original ancient teachings than what we have from all the rest of the world put together... Even by the most conservative estimates the four Vedas date from 1500-1000 BC and have remained virtually unchanged since.
74/n The extensive Brahmanas and early Upanisads precede the time of Buddha. Such preservation is particularly remarkable in a tropical country like India where written records decay quickly.
75/n India also endured many conquests - some, like the Muslim attacks, extremely violent and destructive - but it was able to maintain its ancient records. Even today Brahmins recite the Vedas much as they did some three thousand years ago or more.
76/n This shows a singular dedication to the teaching and tradition, which should at least be worthy of notice."

In modern times the Vedic literature has been examined and translated by Western scholars such as Mueller, Wilson, Keith, Griffith and Bergaine.
77/n They did not have very deep insight into the workings of the Vedic culture and were often inspired by questionable motives.
78/n In the nineteenth century it was the declared policy of the British government to show that Western culture, based on Greek tradition and further enhanced by the Christian belief, was far superior to the Vedic tradition.
79/n Monier Williams' celebrated Sanskrit dictionary was compiled with this aim -to demolish and discredit the ancient Sanskrit teachings and to replace them with Sanskrit editions of Christian literature.This can hardly be called a noble and certainly not a scientific approach.
80/n In this regard @davidfrawleyved writes, "The great Indian epic, the Mahabharata, for example, refers to a civil war involving all of north India that occurred some time before that of the Buddha.
81/n Kings from throughout the whole country of the time are mentioned as having been involved in the battle. This we have turned into a local skirmish among petty princes in the northwest corner of India, which was later exaggerated by poets.
82/n We assume exaggeration, if not deception, on the part of the ancients rather than giving them credit for what they actually say when it goes against what we believe possible for them...
83/n The question of the Rg-Veda is even more difficult because many ideas about it have been accepted as fact, even though they are highly speculative and not proven by the actual text. The modern idea is that the Vedic people were a racial type (Aryans).
84/n They are said to have invaded India in the second millennium BC as primitive nomads from Central Asia.

The Rg-Veda is said to have been composed in the Punjab region of northwest India as the first step of this invasion. These are ideas used to interpret the text.
85/n They are not found within it. In fact, they require altering the meaning of words and changing the orientation of the text to make them credible. However, no one seems to read the Rg-Veda these days in the original Sanskrit.
86/n We read it through the interpretations and naturally it proves the interpretations. If we find astronomical ref to early areas (pre 2000 BC)in the Vedas,we cannot say that these are too early for them to be real.This is not scholarship, it is prejudice or pre judgment."
87/n At this point we have to - in order to keep the text short - simply summarize a couple of evidences which point to a much earlier date of the Rg-Veda than what is generally given by modern Western or even Indian Marxist scholars.
88/n The Rg-Veda contains astronomical references which are based on a knowledge of the phenomenon of precession. The Vedic culture expressed through the Rg-Veda employed sidereal time.
89/n Thus the points of vernal equinox or winter solstice wud be mentioned as having occurred or occurring in particular lunar constellations,called naksatras.Its simple to calculate on that basis what the dates of a vernal equinox mentioned in the text were as per our calendar.
90/n In this way we get the following table
91/n The dates in the above table can be supported by a number of quotes from the Rg-Veda, too numerous to be quoted in this paper. For more detail the reader is referred to David Frawley's chapter on Vedic Astronomy. He writes:
92/n "While the references before the Krttikas (Taurus vernal equinox) are less clear, that reference itself is definite. Its language is as clear as stating, 'now the vernal equinox is in early Taurus.'
93/n It proves that whoever the Vedic people were and wherever they lived, their culture was in its later phase by 2000 BC. With this reference substantiated the others become hard to dismiss.With such astronomical references in all Vedic texts, on what grounds can we deny them?
94/n If the Rg-Veda uses the same terms as later astronomy, we cannot say they are wrong or referred to something else because it does not agree with our theories. Our theories may be wrong but the stars are not."
95/n Another quite striking example can be quoted regarding the starting date of Kali-yuga. The Kali-yuga, according to Puranic references as well as references from the Jyotisa-sastras, began on February 18, 3102 BC.
96/n The sastras claim that there was a planetary alignment of the 7 planets including the sun and the moon. Dr. R Thompson, in his book Vedic Cosmography & Astronomy, shows how this planetary alignment can be verified by making the necessary calculations with computer programs.
97/n The standard view of modern Western scholars is that this date for the start of Kali-yuga is fictitious. Indeed,these scholars maintain that the Mahabharata itself is fiction & that the civilization described in the Vedic literature is simply a product of poetic imagination.
98/n There is not enough space here to present the brilliant research work of Dr. Thompson in more detail. The Surya-siddhanta, perhaps the most famous work on Indian astronomy, is full of amazingly accurate astronomical data.
99/n This work gives the figures for planetary cycles in orbital revolution per divya-yuga. One divya-yuga is 4,320,000 solar years. One thousand such divya-yugas give the duration of one day of Brahma, called a kalpa. At the end of each kalpa there is a partial devastation.
100/n I include these ideas in this thread to point at the very vast time frame which is accepted for periodic cosmic phenomena in the Puranas and other Vedic literature.
101/n The Surya-siddhanta says about itself that it was spoken by a messenger from the sun-god,Surya, to the famous asura Maya Danava at the end of the last Satya-yuga.
102/n This is of course an enormous time span but there are some quite remarkable statements in that book which give us something to think about. For eg a description of certain constellations,whose astronomical data in terms of their position in the heavens appear to be wrong.
103/n However, if, with the help of computer programs a retrocalculation is done, it shows that the positions of the stars would be accurate for a time about 50,000 years earlier.
104/n There is no question of such calculations being faked and the oldest available manuscripts of the Surya-siddhanta come from a time where such calculations could not possibly have been done without the help of computers.
105/n One more intriguing point in connection with the Puranic time scale and its four yugas: The Rg-Veda verse quoted above, "4 are his horns,3 are his feet,2 are his heads and 7 are his hands" (IV.58.3), can be symbolically interpreted as, 4,3,2 and 7 zeros.
106/n That is exactly the duration of one kalpa, or one thousand times the aggregate of the four yugas, or 4,320,000,000 years.

The Aryan invasion is a myth invented by Western scholars in order to discredit the original Vedic civilization.
107/n They could simply not tolerate the idea that an advanced human culture could have originated in India. It had to come from outside. In any case, the term aryan, is not designating a racial type but rather a cultural class.
108/n A.C. Bhaktivedanta Svami defines, "The word Aryan is applicable to persons who know the value of life and have a civilization based on spiritual realization."
109/n While it is a fact that people existed who immigrated from Central Asia to Central India,there is no evidence that they were the ones who established the Vedic culture.
110/n The Vedic culture was already very old and advanced by the time these people arrived in Aryavarta, 'the abode of the noble and excellent ones'.

A modern scholar has written:
111/n "Current archeological data do not support the existence of an Indo-Aryan or European invasion into South Asia at any time in the pre- or protohistoric periods.
112/n Instead, it is possible to document archeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural development from prehistoric to historic periods.
113/n The early Vedic literature describes not a human invasion into the area, but a fundamental restructuring of indigenous society.The Indo-Aryan invasion as an academic concept in eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe reflected the cultural milieu of that period.
114/n Linguistic data were used to validate the concept that in turn was used to interpret archeological & anthropological data."Ref:Jim G. Shaffer "The Indo-Aryan Invasions: Cultural Myth and Archeological Reality," in J.R. Lukak's The People of South Asia (New York:Plenum,1984)
115/n In the following part of this thread we will take a closer look at what is included in the Vedas.Generally the Vedas are accepted as four, Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. Each Veda has two distinct portions, known as mantra and brahmana.
116/n The mantra section contains hymns to the fire, the sun, the air, the sky and the wind or to the respective deities who personify these elements. The brahmana section contains descriptions of the rituals and ceremonies in which the mantras were supposed to be used.
117/n It also gives historical explanations in connection with the mantras. The mantras are of three types, 1. Rc, which are verses of praise in metre, and intended for loud recitation; 2. Yajus, which are in prose, and intended for recitation in a lower tone at yagna;
118/n 3. Saman, which are in metre, and intended for chanting at the Soma ceremonies.

Also included under the designation Vedic are the Sutras, Upanisads, and Aranyakas. The Sutras are manuals for teaching in ritual, philosophy, grammar and so on.
119/n Most closely connected to the Vedas are the Srauta & Kalpa-sutras. They are giving concise rules for the performance of every kind of sacrifice. Of course there are others like the Grhya-sutras,Dharma-sutras, Panini's celebrated grammar, Patanjali's Yoga-sutras & many more.
120/n The Upanisads are philosophical writings attached to the Brahmanas. Their aim is the exposition of the secret meaning of the Vedas. The Upanisads are considered to be the source of the Vedanta and of Sankhya philosophies.
121/n There are 108 generally accepted Upanisads, of which eleven are the most important, as previously stated.

The Aranyakas, literally 'forest-born', are a class of philosophical writings which are closely connected with the Brahmanas.
122/n They are called Aranyakas because they were either composed in forests or studied there. The Upanisads are considered to be attached to them.

Besides the scriptures mentioned above there are also the six Vedangas, literally 'limbs of the Vedas'.
123/n These are auxiliary works, the study of which is considered to be essential for the proper understanding of the Vedas. The Vedangas are considered to be part of the Vedas and are mainly composed in Sutra style. They are listed as follows:
124/n 1)Siksa, the science of proper articulation and pronunciation, comprising the knowledge of letters, accents, quantity, the use of the organs of pronunciation and phonetics.
125/n 2) Chandas, metre, represented by a treatise ascribed to Pingla-naga.
3)Vyakarana, linguistic analysis or grammar, represented by Panini's celebrated Sutra.
4)Nirukta, explanation of difficult Vedic words.
5)Jyotisa, astronomy
6)Kalpa, ceremonial
126/n The first and second of these Vedangas are said to be intended to secure the correct reading or recitation of the Vedas, the third and fourth the understanding of it, and the fifth and sixth its proper employment at sacrifice.
127/n Other scriptures also counted among Vedic texts, are for eg the Ayur-Veda, and the Dhanur-Veda. The Ayur-Veda is the sacred science of health and medicine and is considered as a supplement of the Atharva-Veda.
128/n The Dhanur-Veda or science of archery is regarded as an Upa-veda connected with the Yajur-Veda, and derived from Visvamitra or Bhrgu.
129/n There are many more subjects elaborated on within the Vedic lit, such as the silpa-sastras a class of works dealing with any mechanical or fine art including architecture.
130/n Traditionally, in Indian philosophy, six schools are accepted that are all based on the Vedas in various ways. These philosophies are known as sad-darsana and were originally propounded by the following sages:

(1) vaisesika, propounded by Kanada Rsi
131/n (2) nyaya, propounded by Gautama Rsi
(3) yoga or mysticism, propounded by Patanjali Rsi
(4) the philosophy of sankhya, propounded by Kapila Rsi
(5) the philosophy of karma-mimansa, propounded by Jaimini Rsi
132/n (6) the philosophy of brahma-mimansa, or Vedanta, the ultimate conclusion of the Absolute Truth (janmady asya yatah), propounded by Vedavyasa.
133/n There are many statements about the apauruseya,Vedic nature of the Itihasas & Puranas in the Vedic Samhitas,Brahmanas,Aranyakas, Upanisads,Kalpa-sutras,Dharma-sutras & Grhya-sutras, as well as in the Puranas, Itihasas & other smrti texts. Here are a few of these statements
134/n rcah samani chandamsi purana yajusa saha
ucchistaj jajnire sarve divi deva divi-sritah

"The Rg, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva Vedas appeared from the Supreme Lord along with the Puranas and all the demigods residing in the heavenly planets." (Atharva Veda 11.7.24)
135/n sa brhatim disam anu vyacalat
tam itihasas ca puranam ca gathas ca narasamsis canuvyacalan
itihasasya ca vai sa puranasya ca gathanam ca narasamsinam ca priyam dhama bhavati ya evam veda.
(Atharva Veda 15.6.10-12) meaning 👇🏼
136/n "He approached the Brhati meter, and thus the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas, and Narasamsis became favorable to him. One who knows this verily becomes the beloved abode of the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas, and Narasamsis"
137/n evam ime sarve veda nirmitah sa-kalpah sa-rahasyah sa-brahmanah
sopanisatkah setihasah sanvakhyatah sa-puranah.

"In this way all the Vedas were manifested along with the kalpas, rahasyas,Brahmanas,Upanisads, Itihasas, anvakhyatas and Puranas" (Gopatha Brahmana,Purva 2.10).
138/n nama va rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama-veda atharvanas caturtha itihasa-puranah pancamo vedana vedah.

"Indeed Rg, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva are the names of the four Vedas. The Itihasas and Puranas are the fifth Veda" (Chandogya Up. 7.1.4).
139/n mimansate ca yo vedan sadbhir angaih sa-vistaraih
itihasa-puranani sa bhaved veda-para-gah

"One who thoroughly studies the Vedas along with their six limbs and the Itihasas and Puranas becomes a true knower of the Vedas" (Vyasa-smrti 4.45)
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