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Shamash was the Akkadian name for the #Mesopotamian god of the sun, known to the Sumerians as Utu. His main symbol was the solar disc, a circle with four points in each of the cardinal directions and four wavy, diagonal lines emanating from the circle between each point.
According to "Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia" by Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, the Akkadian name for this #symbol was shamshatu. It was often represented on a pole as a standard. The symbol is currently a popular icon among people native to #Mesopotamia.
Chaldean Christians posing with their ethnic flag, a colored shamshatu flanked by 2 parallel blue bands. Though #Chaldean Catholics are mostly regarded ethnically and historically as a part of the #Assyrian continuity, some claim a Chaldean ethnic identity as a nation of its own.
The ethnic flag of the #Assyrian people features a shamshatu with four triple-coloured, widening, wavy stripes connecting the centre to the four corners of the flag. Above the shamshatu is a depiction of the Assyrian pre-Christian god Assur. This flag was adopted in 1971.
The most recent (2018) 1000 Dinar banknote issued by the Central Bank of #Iraq features a shamshatu/Star of Shamash symbol.
The Nineveh Plain Protection Units is a local armed militia consisting mainly of Iraqi Assyrians defending since 2014 the Nineveh plains against #ISIS. The Nineveh plains are a region in #Iraq traditionally considered being part of the heartland of #Assyria.
Their emblem features a Star of Shamash on a white background, accompanied by Latin, Arabic and Syriac script. The group would consist of a few thousand fighters, allying themselves with both the Iraqi army as the Kurdish #peshmerga.
In the game Civilization V, the #Assyrian nation has the Star of Shamash as its logo and Assurbanipal as its leader. They were introduced in the Brave New World DLC, and are, together with Babylonia, one of the two #Mesopotamian civilizations featured in the #game.
The Syriac Union Party in Syria (1) is an Assyrian political party that represents the interests of the Assyrians in #Syria. They're closely allied to the #Rojava entity. The SUP has set up the Sutoro police (2) and the Syriac Military Council (3) to protect Assyrian communities.
Some 1959 #Iraq postal stamps featuring the Star of Shamash. As a matter of fact, the image on the stamp was the de facto state emblem of Iraq between 1959 and 1965! An #Arabic sword and #Kurdish dagger embrace the blue wheel on both sides, with a wheat plant at its centre.
Republic of #Iraq 1959 10 Dinar banknote (front & back) featuring a Star of Shamash and Mesopotamian imagery like the lamassu. Note, as with the postal stamps, that the 1958 Republic or Iraq overthrew the Hashemite monarchy, effectively changing from #Arab to pre-Islamic symbols.
For more information on the Gozarto Protection Forces or Sootoro, read this thread from the esteemed @shell_blog. I'm in fact very much interested in the fusion of symbols here as well as with the earlier mentioned Syriac Military Council.
The eagle is usually not a part of native #Assyrian symbolism and iconic imagery. It is however claimed by both Kurdish and pan-Arab movements as the emblem of Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn, their proclaimed ancestor (check out my thread about that).
It's interesting to see the Assyrian allies to #rojava as well as to the #Syrian regime mix the eagle with their native Star of Shamash symbol.
Dwekh Nawsha (Syriac for "one who sacrifices") is an #Assyrian military organization in #Iraq created in June 2014. The group contains a few 100 fighters, among which several American and other foreign fighters. Their emblem is the ethnic Assyrian flag with 2 crossed rifles.
The group was set up by the Assyrian Patriotic Party, led by Emanuel Khoshaba. The political party, founded in #Baghdad in the 70s, seeks to channel the growing nationalism among young Assyrians. Since the war with #ISIS, they work with the #Peshmerga to retake lost territory.
When casually reading the great thread of @Moudhy about the lunar eclipse, I suddenly spotted a star of Shamash 🧐. It can be found on the kudurru of the #Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar I ( c. 1125–1104 BC). This limestone stela can be found in the British Museum - London.
This kudurru is similar to the kudurru of king Melishipak II, which I wrote about in my thread on the #Sumerian omega. Just like that one, the 1st tier of the kudurru features the symbols of 3 deities: The 8-pointed star of Ishtar, the crescent of Sin and the star of Shamash.
Ever wondered how many Assyrian militias are out there? Start following @shell_blog! His latest is on the Nattoreh #Assyrian Syrian militia, based in Tell Tamer in northwestern Syria. The Khābūr Valley is an area with a large Assyrian population.
The relative small group of a few 100 fighters is closely affiliated with the Assyrian Democratic Party but is de facto part of the #SDF-led operations against #IS. The group, formed in 2011, feature a Star of Shamash as their emblem, accompanied by an eagle on a blue background.
A Star of Shamash (right) featured on a #Babylonian kudurru boundary stone. The stone records a deed of a gift recording a grant of land to Gula-eresh by Eanna-shum-iddina, governor of the south #Mesopotamian Sea-Land. Dated by the British Museum to 1125BC and 1100BC.
Like the other stones I wrote about, the 1st tier features the symbols of three important deities: The star of Ishtar, the crescent of Sin and the star of Shamash. Where the kudurru of king Melishipak II featured a #Sumerian Omega, this one depicts twin spirals curling inward.
This cylinder seal depicts a scene of the Old #Babylonian period. A worshiper offers an animal to Shamash, who rests one foot on a stool. The Star of Shamash floats between them. Dated between 1850 and 1595 BC, this seal is currently part of the Walters Art Museum's collection.
Want to read more about Shamash and his solar disc symbol? Check out this entry on my website and learn about Utu, solar deities and the etymology of Shamash's name.

During excavations at Hazor, a #Canaanite city in Upper #Galilee, led by Yigael Yadin, a 14th-13th c. BC stele was found in the Orthostat Temple featuring a Star of Shamash sun disc. This indicates an extensive influence of the #Mesopotamian sun deity on neighboring pantheons.
A stele of the last Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC) found at Ḥarrān and currently in the Şanlıurfa Museum. As usually, the three major #Mesopotamian deities Ishtar, Shamash and Sīn are represented above. Shamash's sun disc can be seen between the two others.
The depiction of Nabonidus stands exceptionally close to Sīn's crescent, who he preferred above Shamash and Ishtar and even #Babylon's chief deity Marduk. Therefore, the Star of Shamash is in the middle of the three symbols, not the crescent as is commonly the habit.
"The Meeting with Mother" is a collection of poems written by Yoshiya Amrikhas, son of Pera Amrikhas (1872-1945) who taught at the Urmia College in #Iran. The poems are witten in #Syriac, and published in #Teheran in 1965. You can see the gates of Nineveh and the star of Shamash.
The first American evangelical missionary, the Reverend Justin Perkins, arrived in #Persia in 1834 and established headquarters at Urmia, where he founded a church, a school and a printing house. The #Assyrian Evangelical Church of Urmia was organized in 1871.
A gold medaillon with a four-rayed star and 4 curved rays found in the #Uluburun Shipwreck (SW #Turkey). This ca. 1300 BC #Canaanite pendant offers an insight in Shamash's influence on the neighboring Canaanites, influenced by both the #Egyptian & #Babylonian pantheons.
Another gold amulet with the Star of Shamash, found in the Royal Tomb of Qatna. Dated to about 1500-1400 BC, this again shows #Babylonian religious influences on the #Levantine peoples. Source: "Beyond Babylon" (2008) by J. Aruz, K. Benzel and J. Evans.
A Syro-Hittite stone relief found at the 900 BC ruined temple of ʿAyn Dāra (#Aleppo governorate). It's unclear to whom the temple was dedicated, but the winged apkallu demi-gods and the star of Shamash show #Mesopotamian religious influences deep within the Neo-#Hittite lands.
As other findings indicate, the uninterrupted cultural continuity of Neo-Hittite states in the region was certainly influenced by both #Egyptian and Mesopotamian religious imagery, the Hittites having a habit of adopting gods from other pantheons that they came into contact with.
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