Mr Daniel read below 👇🏼as I share few researches about river Saraswati. I say it again, yes it existed and supported max IVC sites. You are a naysayer and still stuck with only what you find in accordance to your religion. Cc @sankrant @Sanjay_Dixit @vivekagnihotri @Shubhrastha
2/n The Saraswati River is one of the main Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west.
3/n Later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Saraswati dried up in a desert. The goddess Saraswati was originally a personification of this river, but later developed an independent identity and gained a different meaning.
4/n The identification of the Vedic Saraswati River with the Ghaggar-Hakra River was accepted by a number of scholars already in the 19th and early 20th century,
5/n According to proto-historian Michel Danino, in ancient times a mature river flowed into the Ghaghar Akra valley and into the Rann of Kutch, which he identifies as the Rig Vedic Sarasvati river.
6/n According to some geological and glaciological studies, the Saraswati originated in the Bandapunch Massif,from the Sarawati-Rupin glacier confluence at Naitwar in western Garhwal.
7/n Descending through the foothills via Adibadri, Bhavanipur, and Balchapur, the river took a roughly southwesterly course, passing through the plains of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat, to finally debouch into the Arabian Sea at the Great Rann of Kutch.
8/n Three major tributaries are proposed: the Sutlej, the Drishadvati, and the Yamuna. The river flowed down the present Ghaggar-Hakra River channel, and that of the Nara in Sindh.
9/n An ancient drainage network formed of several paleochannels, largely buried under the sands of the Thar Desert, is located in western Rajasthan and nearby states, parallel to the Aravalli Hills. Which and how many of these channels belong to the Saraswati is disputed.
10/n Active faults are present in the region, and lateral and vertical tectonic movements have frequently diverted streams in the past. The Saraswati may have migrated westward due to such uplift of the Aravallis.
11/n Palaeo-drainage network formed by several palaeochannels has been worked out by different researchers in western Rajasthan and neighboring states, which is mainly buried under sand cover of the Thar Desert and parallel to the Aravalli Hills.
12/n There are evidences that it was a large perennial river draining the high mountains as late as 5000 years ago. Recent Hindu belief is that still Saraswati river flows underground and meets Yamuna and Ganga at their confluence in Prayag (Allahabad).
13/n Intense investigations during the last 30 years have yielded fruitful data obtained through ground & satellite based techniques as well as from palaeoseismic & palaeoclimatic records all of which had enabled a good reconstruction of the drainage evolution in NE India.
14/n In addition,TL-dating of dry-bed sands & isotopic studies of the groundwater below these channels provided useful links in these reconstruction efforts.
15/n The observed river-shifts and other changes could also be correlated with specific geologic, seismic or climatic event that occurred during the mid- to late-Quaternary period.
16/n Particularly helpful were the information gathered from LANDSAT imagery about location of former river courses in the plains & beneath the Thar desert upto the Rann of Kutch, about existence of palaeo-river valleys and identifying major structural trends (lineaments).
17/n Geophysical surveys carried out by the GSI to assess groundwater potential in Bikaner,Ganganagar & Jaisalmer districts in western Rajasthan desert areas have brought out several zones of fresh & less saline water in the form of arcuate shaped aquifers.
18/n They are similar to several palaeochannels elsewhere in the State. That these subsurface palaeochannels belong to ancient rivers has been confirmed through studies on hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopes on shallow and deep groundwater samples from these districts.
19/n The isotopic work has also indicated that there is no direct head water connection or recharge to this groundwater from present day Himalayas.
20/n Though the antiquity of these waters and probable links to ancient rivers are thus established, the subsurface palaeochannel route beneath the desert sands obtained from hydrogeological investigations, however, differs from that derived through satellite based studies.
21/n Computer based climate simulation studies to reproduce the changes to solar heating of the atmosphere due to variations in earth’s tilt & orbit have shown that climate-induced weakening of monsoons over India & north Africa led to desertification in a span of just 300 years.
22/n The climatic swing that led to sweeping changes in northwestern India was triggered by variations in earth’s orbit and tilt and these departures are known to recur periodically.
23/n The latter should,therefore, rise the possibilities for a favorable orientation of these parameters of earth at some future time to initiate climatic conditions for a re-greening of the Rajasthan desert,rejuvenation of the dry river beds & for a rebirth of Saraswati.
24/n The thickness of the sediment in the Ghagghar Basin in the western reaches between Sirsa & Kalibangan varies from 5 to 30 m,locally to 90 m and in the Hakra reach as much as 150 m.The clay beds are composed of well-crystallized smectite, which is of Himalayan origin.
25/n Saini et al. found a suite of heavy minerals such as tourmaline, greenish-brown amphibole,garnet, sillimanite,kyanite,ilmenite & biotite in the brown micaceous sandy facies of sediments similar to the modern-day sediments of the Himalayan rivers like Yamuna & Ganga.
26/n In the lower part of the basin the channel-fill deposits are characterized by lamination with abundant biotite, muscovite, hornblende, tourmaline, zircon and rutile within each layer.
27/n The presence of these heavy minerals implies the schistose and gneissic rocks contributing to the fluvial sediments of the Saraswati. Needless to recapitulate, the schistone and gfneissic rocks occur in the inner Himalaya.
28/n A few ephemeral petty streams that originate discharge into the Luni river flowing parallel to the Aravali slode independent of the Saraswati and discharging into the Rann of Kutch, away from the Saraswati delta.
29/n A study by a group of international scientists confirms the dominant role of Saraswati river in sustaining the so-called Indus Valley Civilization.
30/n The study titled, ‘Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization’, has concluded that the Indus Valley Civilization died out because the monsoons which fed the rivers that supported the civilization, migrated to the east.
31/n With the rivers drying out as a result, the civilization collapsed some 4000 years ago. The study was conducted by a team of scientists from India, the US, the UK, Pakistan and Romania between 2003 and 2008.
32/n While the new finding puts to rest,other theories of the civilization’s demise,such as the shifting course of rivers due to tectonic changes or a fatal foreign invasion,it serves to strengthen the premise that IVC was largely located on the banks of the Saraswati river.
33/n More than 70 % of the sites that have been discovered to contain archaeological material dating to this civilization’s period are located on the banks of the now dried out Saraswati river.
34/n As experts have been repeatedly pointing out, nearly 2,000 of the 3,000 sites excavated so far are located outside the Indus belt that gives the civilization its name.
35/n According to experts who have studied the map of all relevant underground channels that are intact to date and connected once upon a time with the river, the Saraswati was probably 1500 km long and 3–15 km wide.
36/n The latest study, whose findings were published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, too is clear on the river’s existence and its role in sustaining the ancient civilization.
37/n The report said that the Saraswati was “not Himalayan-fed by a perennial monsoon-supported water course.” It added that the rivers in the region (including Saraswati) were “indeed sizeable and highly active.”
38/n There are 360 mature Harrappan sites in the Sarasvati basin, the Ghaghar Akra and its tributaries. This system certainly dried up and we find a drastic change in the settlement patterns between the mature Harappan and later Harrappan sites.
39/n Kalibangan a Harappan site in Rajasthan was suddenly abandoned in 1900 BCE. Scholars believe that the Sarasvati river system disappeared creating a domino effect on other settlements.
40/n The Union Water Resources Ministry had then quoted in writing the conclusion of a study jointly conducted by scientists of ISRO Jodhpur, and the Rajasthan Government’s Ground Water Department, published in the Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing.
41/n Besides other things, the authors had said that “clear signals of palaeo-channels on the satellite imagery in the form of a strong and powerful continuous drainage system in the North West region and occurrence of archaeological sites of pre-Harappan,..contd...
42/n Harappan and post-Harappan age, beyond doubt indicate the existence of a mighty palaeo-drainage system of Vedic Saraswati river in this region. The description and magnanimity of these channels also matches with the river Saraswati described in the Vedic literature.”
N/n Daniel check the depth of water b4 u decide to dive in. I invite you for open debate on any topic concerning to Indian History. Read and respond thread above 👆🏼 or better don’t spam my TL & get lost if u r hell bent to tell Zakir Niak’s idioticity.
Cc @_NAN_DINI @mini_707070
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