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Wendi Muse @MuseWendi
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"Challenging Geographies and Chronologies of the Global 1960s: Student Activism and Educational Revolts in Chile, Ethiopia, and the United States"…
#aha2019 #studentactivism @AHAhistorians
speaking on this panel:
Stefan Bradley, Loyola Marymount University
Danielle Barefoot, University of Arizona
Kenja McCray, Atlanta Metropolitan State College
Beatrice Wayne, University of Sydney
Anna Kaplan, American University
Prof Bradley mentions the anniversary of the chicago race riots of 1919…
and continues on to mention that while his work focuses on domestic student movements, this group of presenters are working on projects that not only expand beyond the confines of the US, but works to stretch the temporal realm of 1968 revolution
#aha2019 #studentactivism
speaking first is Kenja McCray re: Black Cultural Nationalist Women’s Activism and the use of schools and education programs as a source of radical activism in the 60s, 70s, and 80s+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
these women used these programs in ways that challenged gender roles, while at the same time pulling from earlier women's involvement in afro-diasporic movements+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
she recounts a story of student strikes in San Francisco in the 1960s for an autonomous black studies program, that brought together the black student union, SDS,and other radical student activists+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
women involved in pan-african movements implemented some of the ideological aspects of the San Franscisco State movement into their local community organizing as it "altered the meaning of cultural production"
#aha2019 #studentactivism
pan african cultural nationalist women chose to begin autonomous african/afro-diasporic schools and courses for children, extending the activism from the SFS movement a the local level
#aha2019 #studentactivism
these groups erected independent educational programs instead of relying on outside institutions that attempted to shape the community based on a pre-existing standard that did not necessarily connect
#aha2019 #studentactivism
she notes the significance of the women influenced first in the SFS movement and subsequent local movements who have long been obscured in the historical record. women like Jaribu Hill, of the Committee for a Unified Newark, is one such example
#aha2019 #studentactivism
she learned directly from student activists who were commemorating malcolm x & then became directly involved in local student mvmts,many of which spread across the nation in the aftermath of MLK's & Malcolm X's assassination+natl race-related uprisings
#aha2019 #studentactivism
hill wanted to use her skills and ability for the "uplift of [her] ppl" as opposed to simply replicating the institutional practices of the otherwise exclusionary academy
#aha2019 #studentactivism
mccray draws connections between some earlier, seemingly more conservative black women's movements and these pan-african cultural nationalist groups on the basis of their 1) challenging gender roles, and 2) expanding education +
#aha2019 #studentactivism
next up is Beatrice Wayne,who begins by discussing the closure of HSIU in Ethiopia on the basis of a fashion show held for female students,who were simultaneously seen as the vanguard of the mvmt & the bearers of ethiopian culture,complicating their role
#aha2019 #studentactivism
hsiu (haile selassie I univ.)
around the time of the 1968 fashion show, european fashion and grooming styles were often seen as taboo. at the same time of the show, there was a student union organized protest+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
generally mixed-gender interaction was common in ethiopia at the time, but women's enjoyment of US culture was seen as tied to its colonial project, but not that of men (even though they engaged in it at the same degree)
#aha2019 #studentactivism
HSIU discussed wmn (who made up 5% of the univ population),but they were frequently focused on in the student paper. & a larger proportion of them came from upper class families,which left some to perceive self-selected gender-based division as classist
#aha2019 #studentactivism
they, unlike their elite male students, were also assumed to be more politically conservative and perceived to be behind assumed US influence in gender division
#aha2019 #studentactivism
some even accused the women who put on the fashion show as being US govt agents geared toward keeping ethiopian women from being involved in radical movements (incl the radical student orgs who were holding an event at the same time of the show)
#aha2019 #studentactivism
sexual resentment also emerged when ethiopian female students opted to date american men present on campus, and they were blamed for not being interested in forwarding and caring about the future of the country
#aha2019 #studentactivism
despite attempts by the fashion show organizers to avoid controversy (by not showing miniskirts & showing more african-based fashion instead of european ones), it was protested nonetheless.the police came& cracked down on protesters, placing the women involved even more at odds+
women involved in student activism faced considerable scrutiny,far more than men involved in the radical movement, who frequently excluded women from leadership while targeting them to criticism+
women nevertheless often were at the forefront of protests, including against police armed by the US
#aha2019 #studentactivism
as wayne notes, while the fashion show is not seen as playing a pivotal role in the larger discussions of movements in 1968, it's important that we incorporate this moment in ethiopia to understand other concurrent movements
#aha2019 #studentactivism
next up is Anna Kaplan, speaking on the Univ. of Missisppi and its racial history ppl have had to confront as it related to a civil rights monument of civil rights leader James Meredith
#aha2019 #studentactivism
kaplan notes that while meredith is a significant figure in the desegregation of the univ. of ms, the focus on his work obscures other movements led by black students before and after integration & papers over the challenges the univ admin. raised toward black students+
several attempts were made by the administration to limit the entrance of black students, disproportionately disciplining them, and white mobs (in conjunction with local police) harassed these students, despite court orders protecting them+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
student newspapers (with help from the FBI) helped further this process, hyperfocusing on the activities of black students, particularly those involved in campus activism in attempt to begin a black student union
#aha2019 #studentactivism
as kaplan notes, some students were arrested and imprisoned solely for peaceful demonstrations during campus events. the threat they posed was inflated by student and local papers, putting them at even further risk of surveillance and violent law enforcement
in the 1990s, white and black students came together to solicit a civil rights monument to be built on campus, but face considering pushback from the university on the basis of poorly supported arguments against the monuments proposed+
instead of going with a monument created by a local black artist, the university instead went with a monument by a white artist of meredith (which he himself hated and opposed bc it worked to clean up the university's racist past and downplayed his battle to integrate the school)
speaking next is Danielle Barefoot - she begins with a discussion of a song written in honor of students protesting throughout the chile calling for radical reforms at the university (one demand of which was to make universities free)+
the activism in chile challenges the commonly-held ideas of 1968 as the "watershed moment" in leftist/student movements+
#aha2019 #studentactivism
she also notes the involvement of the US in the chilean educational system, as it quietly dedicated extensive funding to k-12 and universities on which the chilean govt was dependent+
this was the backdrop for student movements that directly challenged the elite structures of the university system, looking to neighboring nations and internationalist political movements (incl marxist leninism) for inspiration+
she asks in her worth whether education can serve "as a road to revolution?"
from her research, she shows that the aforementioned educational reform movements marked later political shifts throughout the nation
#aha2019 #studentactivism
and the response by right wing student groups and reactionary political parties spurred what would later evolve into intervention in chilean politics against allende
#aha2019 #studentactivism
connecting my earlier thread from the Fred Hampton Lives panel here. Click the tweet below for the full thread:

"unrolled" version of the global #studentactivism thread:…
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