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Rob Taber @RobTaber
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Time for the next #HHaiti panel! First up is N. Frédéric Pierre, " Haitian Statesmen and the African Presence in Jean-Jacques Dessalines' Empire" exploring questions of Black statecraft #AHA19 #Haiti
Pierre looking at some of the intellectual/historiographical background, showing that the Atlantic turn on the French Revolution started in the 1930s, not the corps. French scholars chose to ignore Cooper's work. #HHaiti #AHA19
Herskovitz' Life in a Haitian Valley (1937), emphasized Haitian Africanness, doubled-down on by Jean-Price Mars. #AHA19 #HHaiti #Haiti
Pierre - a rupture in analytical spaces, where Atlantic revolutions and politics are in one and Haitian culture is in the other. A habit of scholarship divorced Haitian culture from discussions of Atlantic politics. #HHaiti #AHA19
Pierre looking at cadre of men who built the Dessalines state/empire, who had Kikongo and/or Bantu roots in their names. #AHA19 #HHaiti
Pierre also looking at Upper Guinea (Fallon), Kongo, and MBundu influences, raising questions of Haitian men opting out of Gallican names and opting into African names. #HHaiti #AHA19
Also at Bambara, Akan, and Fin, including Fanfan from Léogane. Pierre makes an interesting point that Haiti had the most ethnically diverse government of the early 19th century Atlantic. #HHaiti #AHA19
Next up in #AHA19 #s95 #HHaiti is @JuliaGaffield on sovereignty, diplomacy, and religious dominion in the aftermath of revolution.
@JuliaGaffield This work builds on @JuliaGaffield's first book, Haitian Recognition in the Atlantic World: Recognition After Revolution, which disrupted the "isolatated" thesis. #HHaiti #AHA19 #s95

amazon.com/Haitian-Connec…
I first heard the "isolated" thesis from a fellow diner at a roadside stand in Petit-Goâve back in February 2004. It was also my first introduction to the linkage to the Taíno in the Haitian national story. A narrative of colonialism, exploitation, fight for liberty & respect.
This is part of why I'm excited about @JuliaGaffield's work on "layered recognition," nuancing the thesis, yes, and also showing the way 19th century Haitians utilized diplomacy to argue for #Haiti's place in the "family of nations." #AHA19 #s95 #HHaiti

And @JuliaGaffield's attention to "religious dominion" also illuminates that the (US-centric) narrative that racialization wholly replaced/disrupted religious community somewhere in the mid-17th c VA does not work outside the US (and works not well in US). #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
It's also interesting to think about @JuliaGaffield's work on Catholic diplomacy in the context of the negotiation happening within Catholic congregations in the 19th-century US, as many Catholics of color were from (or descended from) Haitians. #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
Here's a nice @whyy write-up on Philadelphia's first Black Catholic church. #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

whyy.org/segments/sayin…
.@JuliaGaffield quoting a European observer finding Haiti a better applicant to the "family of nations" than the South American republics due to trade, religion, etc., but the question of "color" kept them out. "Civilization" came to heavily involve skin color.

#AHA19 #HHaiti
.@JuliaGaffield: The Concordat with the Vatican was just another step in full recognition. Existing member states in the family of nations kept changing the requirements. Having a constitution, legal codes, treaties, Vatican recognition not enough. #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
The next paper is from @bronaldbyrd, "'To Evade the Laws the Country': The Haitian Emigration Movement, Citizenship, and US-Haitian Diplomacy"

#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
I am very, very excited for @bronaldbyrd's book-in-progress "The Black Republic: African Americans, Haiti, and the Rise of Radical Black Internationalism," forthcoming from @PennPress

#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
Dr. Byrd has a shoutout to the work of @XtinaDavidson #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

christinacdavidson.com/about-me
.@bronaldbyrd linking his work to larger, hemispheric and transAtlantic discussions of Black citizenship in the 19th century. Yes, yes, yes. This is part of the long 19th century of emancipation, reconstruction. #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95 @bronaldbyrd also looking at the way Haiti enforced citizenship, particularly compulsory service of people who had migrated to Haiti from the US, as question of Haitian sovereignty. Tenure of William F. Powell, associate of Booker T. Washington.
@bronaldbyrd Powell had also sought to build US-Haiti ties by encouraging Haitians to come study at Tuskegee. #HBCU #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd rattling off a series of migrations from the US TO Haiti - not marginal, quite the opposite. Repeated over generations, had social impacts. Powell noticed lots of disputed citizenship claims.
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd wants to dive more into how the Haitian-born sons of US migrants, and their parents, thought about these claims, but sees Powell's thinking as pretty clear. Powell sees trying to claim US citizenship as defense against US imperial expropriation.
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd points out that the US and Haiti are BOTH rethinking citizenship in the second half of the 19th century. In 1889, Haiti removes racial barriers to citizenship - white foreigners could now be naturalized.
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd: US-descended residents born in Haiti certainly fell within Haitian definition of citizenship. The US-born parents had a murkier status. Powell looks at MOUs between Haiti and US & Scottish abolitionists, laws of immigration.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

There are land grants involved/at stake - other citizenship claims had to be renounced to get them. Powell concludes that the claims of US citizenship here to avoid the draft are strategic rather than sincere.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd: Several implications. Powell knew Haiti wasn't isolated, was a receiving society, substantial number of immigrants of African descent, importance beyond numbers.
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd: What does it mean that Haiti's laws were recognized and respected? We need to look more at the careers and activism of Black diplomats in the late 19th century.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@RonAJohnson turns questions over to the audience. First comment is on South Carolina-Haiti connections and the diplomatic difficulty of moving between the two before 1865.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

Next comment is about 1889 as a time with lots of questions about US citizens in Cuba making treaty claims that can be placed in dialogue with Haiti cases.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

Next is from @XtinaDavidson, asking @bronaldbyrd about people born in the US (or in Haiti) making Haitian citizenship claims.
Wrong tag - that was @CeceDavidson
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@CeceDavidson asked @JuliaGaffield about how the eastern part of the island fits into this Catholic diplomacy. Gaffield still working on that part. An effort to move the bishopric from Santo Domingo to Port-au-Prince in the 1830s(?) is rejected by Rome.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

Next question is from Jonathan Israel, about how far the New Granada / Colombia / Venezuela constitutions go into recognizing Black citizenship in early 19th century. @JuliaGaffield points to @csorianogomez's amazon.com/Tides-Revoluti…
I'll also mention @MarixaLasso1's Myths of Harmony #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

amazon.com/Myths-Harmony-…
I missed a question from Emily Clark there. The next question is for @bronaldbyrd about how many migrants to Haiti stayed. He says that the evidence is lacking in the scholarly claims of high rates of return to the US/North America.

#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95
@bronaldbyrd #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@bronaldbyrd - both white and Black newspapers had a vested interest in discouraging emigration from the US to Haiti. Haitian marriage records show a different story. There are also the papers of James Theodore Holly.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_The…
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

@RonAJohnson points out that he's co-editing a collection right now where there's an essay by @bronaldbyrd about this question that is excellent.
#AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

Good dialogue between @chelseastieber and Pierre, Pierre points to the recent #ASA address by Jean Allman about how Herskovitz gate kept funding for research on Africa. We need to see Haiti as an African frontier / beachhead in the Atlantic world.
Allman's address at #ASA2018 is available here. I'm tweeting so I can be sure to watch it. #AHA19 #HHaiti #s95

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