, 30 tweets, 58 min read Read on Twitter
@DalrympleWill Watch this thread of portraits of all the 28 #Mughal rulers and a brief history.
To start with,credit @Wikipedia here are some known Standards (Alam) of the empire. Left: possible one, from paintings. Right: captured by British in 1857.
@India_Atelier @mukhoty
The first #Mughal Emperor was Zahir ud din Mohammed #Babur Born in #Ferghana #Uzbekestan he ruled #India from #Delhi from 1st April 1526 to 26th December 1530.
This c1630 painting is from @V_and_A Artist unknown.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @mukhoty @Bagh_eBabur
From @RCT this c1603 painting by artist #Mohan is of the 2nd emperor, Nasir ud din Mohd #Humayun, ruled from 26th Dec 1530 to 27th May 1540. Defeated by #Suri dynasty, he recovered the empire, ruling from 22nd Feb 1555 till 27th Jan 1556. Died falling from stairs
Tomb at #Delhi
From @hermitage_eng, the portrait by #Manohar c1580 is of the 3rd #Mughal Emperor Jalal ud din Mohammed #Akbar Ruling from #Agra from 27th Jan 1556 to 27th Oct 1605. Died from Dysentery and entombed at #Sikandra near Agra.
@DalrympleWill @mukhoty @India_Atelier @DilliKiRanaiyan
@DalrympleWill Akbar's son Nur ud din Mohammed Salim #Jahangir, the 4th #Mughal Emperor ruled from 15th Oct 1605 to 8th Oct 1627
Probably died of Pneumonia & burried at #Shahadra #Lahore
This c1615 painting from @metmuseum is by Ni'mat Qadin Abu'l Hasan
@India_Atelier @mukhoty
@DalrympleWill 5th #Mughal ruler #DawarBakhsh Bahadur was Jahangir’s grandson. Installed as a puppet & deposed, he was put to death and entombed at #Lahore Ruled from 28t Oct 1627 to 27th Jan 1628.
His potrait from @RCT by artists of #IndianSchool c1625.
@India_Atelier @iamrana
@DalrympleWill 6th #Mughal Emperor Shahab uddin Mohammed Khurram #ShahJahan ruled 8th Nov 1627 to 2nd Aug 1658. Deposed during illness by son Aurengzeb, he is buried at #TajMahal
Dara Shukoh was Crown Prince only
#Bichitr painting from @CBL_Dublin c 1630
@India_Atelier @iamrana
@DalrympleWill Hearing Shahjahan's illness, son #MuradBakhsh crowns himself as the 7th #Mughal Emperor at #Ahemedabad on 30th Nov 1657 & remained till 7th July 1658. Put to death by brother Aurengzeb he lies at #HumayunTomb #Delhi
From @AshmoleanMuseum 17th cent. @India_Atelier
Hearing about the turmoil at the centre, another son #ShahShuja takes imperial titles as 8th #Mughal in #Bengal #Orissa & #Dacca in Nov1657 untill his defeat by #MirJumla in April 1660
His tomb is allegedly in Dharema #Pakistan. From Navin Kumar Gallery, USA c1675
@DalrympleWill Having deposed all his brothers Muhi ud din Mohammed #Aurengzeb Alamgir became the 9th #Mughal Emperor from 31st July 1658 to 3rd March 1707.
Buried at #Khuldabad
This painting from @BAMPFA late 17th century.
@India_Atelier @mukhoty @dpanikkar @DilliKiRanaiyan
@DalrympleWill On Aurengzeb's death son Mohd #AzamShah proclaims himself as the 10th #Mughal on 14th Mar 1707 in #Gujarat & #Malwa at #Ahmednagar but is killed on 8th June 1707. Tomb: Humayun Tomb #Delhi
This painting from @V_and_A
C1680 is pre coronation
@India_Atelier @mukhoty
@DalrympleWill The only illegitimate child of Aurengzeb, Mohd #KamBakhsh crowned 11th #Mughal emperor, March1707 in #Deccan #Hyderabad but is killed in battle with Mir Jumla on 14th Jan1708. Buried at #HumayunTomb #Delhi
This 17th cent painting is from Fraser Album, @Sothebys
@DalrympleWill Confusion prevails following Aurengzeb's death. Son Qutab ud din Mu'azzm #ShahAlamBahadur (19 June 1708 to 27th Feb 1712) becomes the 12th #Mughal but dies at #Lahore due to "enlarged spleen" Buried at #MotiMasjid #Mehrauli #Delhi.
From @laBnF c1670
From @LACMA c1720. Proclaimed as the 13th #Mughal, Sultan Azhar ud din Mohammed Azim Mirza #AzimUshShan Bahadur ruled from 27th Feb 1712 till his murder by drowning in #Ravi river, 8th March 1712. Now lies at #HumayunTomb #Delhi
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @irfhabib @mukhoty
@DalrympleWill From @RCT c1780, portrait of 14th #Mughal ruler Mu'izz ud din Mohammed #JahandarShah who ruled from 27th Feb 1712 to 11th Feb 1713 after murdering his 3 brothers. He was murdered by strangulation by the next ruler. Tomb: #HumayunTomb #Delhi
@India_Atelier @mukhoty
@DalrympleWill Azim Ush Shan's son Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud din Mohammed #Farukhsiyar became the 15th #Mughal ruler from 11th Jan 1713 till 28th Feb 1719. Strangled to death too by unknown, he lies at #HumayunTomb
From @britishlibrary c1715.
@India_Atelier @mukhoty @irfhabib
From @laBnF c1750 Brought in as a puppet by #SayyidBrothers, Mohd Shah #Nikusiyar Timur II (Aurengzeb's grandson), the 16th #Mughal from 18 May 1719 to 23 Aug 1719 Deposed & imprisoned. Tomb: #Mehrauli Mausoleum of Qutubddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @mukhoty
From @sjmhyd 17th cent. Another puppet ruler brought in by #SayyidBrothers, the 17th #Mughal, Azim ush Shan's nephew, Abu'l Barakat Shams ud din Mohd #RafiUdDarjat ruled 28th Feb1719 to 6th Jun1719. Death due to lung cancer. Tomb: As above.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @mukhoty
From @V_and_A c17th cent #Guler The 18th #Mughal, next puppet of #SayyidBrothers, brother of Darjat, Rafi ud din Mohammed #RafiUdDaulah Shahjahan III ruled 6th June 1719 to 19th Sept 1719. Poisoned, he lies at the Dargah of Kamal Khan Shahid, #Agra
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier
@DalrympleWill From @britishmuseum c17th cent Next puppet of #SayyidBrothers nephew of #AzimUshShan Abu'l Fateh Zahar ud din #MohammedIbrahim is made the 19th #Mughal. Rules 15th Oct to 13th Nov 1720. Deposed & sent back to his birthplace: PRISON!
Tomb: Kaki's Dargah, #Mehrauli
@DalrympleWill 12 yrs & 11 rulers later, 20th #Mughal ruler Nasir ud din #MohammedShah Roshan Akhtar "#Rangila" (27 Sept1719 to 26 Apr1748) has a long rule. Deposed #SayyidBrothers.
Died of grief after the battle of Manupur.
From @ClevelandArt 1764 by Mohd Rizavi.
From @SDMA 1750 The 21st #Mughal Abu Nasir Mujahid ud din Mohammed #AhmedShah Bahadur ruled 26 Apr 1748 to 2 June 1754.
Deposed by Marathas & imprisoned, he lies at #HumayunTomb Delhi.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @DilliChat @DilliKiRanaiyan @irfhabib @mukhoty @JAJafri @iamrana
@DalrympleWill From @V_and_A c1755 portrait of the 22nd #Mughal #JahandarShah's son Aziz ud din #Alamgir II (26th Jan 1754 to 29th Nov 1759). By now Marathas, Afghans, British begin weakening the empire. Deposed, lies burried #HumayunTomb
@India_Atelier @dpanikkar @irfhabib
#Alamgir's cousin Muhi ul Millat #ShahjahanIII is made the 23rd #Mughal ruler by the clergy on 10th Dec 1759 but on 10th Oct 1760, Marathas depose him.
No painting is known. However, coins were struck like this one dated AH 1173, Mint: Mahindergah.
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier
Christies, c1800. The "Wretched Shaw Alum" 24th #Mughal son of #Alamgir Abudullah Jalal ud din Mohammed Ali Gauhar #ShahAlamII is crowned by Marathas on 24th Oct 1759 till his natural death on 19th Nov 1806.
Blinded in 1788, he is the "Andha Mughal" Tomb:#Mehrauli
From @bonhams1793 c1780. As #Marathas #Sikhs #Afghans #British begin to express their authority, it weakens the empire #AhmedShah's son Mohd Shah #BidarBakht Bahadur revolts & becomes the 25th #Mughal as Glulam Kadir's puppet from 31Jul to 2 Oct1788
@India_Atelier @DalrympleWill
Too much is happening in 1788. Ghulam Kadir is defeated by #Marathas & he escapes with #ShahAlamII's son Mohd #AkbarShah 2 to #Saharanpur where he is installed as the 26th #Mughal ruler from 15th Oct to 19th Oct 1788.
Khutba was read in his name and coins minted.
Rebellion is put down and the blinded #ShahAlamII continues his rule as a puppet of #Marathas
There's a place in #Delhi known as #AndhaMughal or blind Mughal.
Meanwhile, regional aspirations and European Colonialism signal the end of the #Mughal empire.
Columbia edu c1775:
From @AgaKhanMuseum 1811 painting of 27th #Mughal ruler Abu Nasir Moin uddin Mohammed #AkbarShah, son of #ShahAlamII now switch sides. Rules 19Nov 1806 to 28 Sept1837
Though the same person of 1788, coin collectors distinguish between the 2, effectively making 27 different people
With a heavy heart I deliberately share the sad photo of 28th (last) #Mughal Emperor Abu #Zafar Siraj ud din Mohammed Bahadur Shah #BahadurShahZafar Ruled 28 Sept 1837 till 23 Sept 1857
Deposed and exiled to #Burma Tomb: #Yangon #Myanmar
@DalrympleWill @India_Atelier @dpanikkar
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