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It is a fact that both Indo-Aryan & Dravidian languages have morphemes with similar semantic & grammatical properties. One of them is #Hindi / Urdu भी bhī which derives from #Sanskrit अपि api. Interestingly Sanskrit api is a calque of #Dravidian –um. Of course -api (< IE ∗epi)
The 4 senses of भी bhī in Hindi or similar morphemes in other Modern Indo-Aryan languages viz ''coordination; inclusion; generalization & indefiniteness; and concession'' have been shown to be similar in use with Dravidian -um particle (which exhibits a spectrum of 5 senses)
While #Sanskrit api & #Dravidian -um both have 5 senses: “also”; “and”; “even” or “even if” or “even so” or “even though”; “without exception'', as in sarve pi “all of them , without exception”; &, with an interrogative pronoun or derivative, “all who”, as in ko ‘pi 'whoever”.
In Indo-Aryan there are evidences of first three usages in Vedic & Classical Sanskrit, & the last two senses in Classical Sanskrit. That is to say - 5 grammatical meanings of the Dravidian -um particle diffused in the five uses of Sanskrit api अपि > Hindi भी bhī (4 senses).
One of the primary reason for this calquing was bilingualism of the speakers using Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages. The 5 senses system is preserved more robustly in Indo-Aryan languages in direct contact with Dravidian such as Marathi (ही, बी) & Konkani.
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