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How the Delhi Sultanate saved the Indian sub-continent from the wrath of the Mongols. #Thread

In 1221, the Mongol Army under Genghis Khan appeared for the first time on the banks of the Indus River. They had destroyed everything in thier path. #Thread
The life mission of Genghis Khan was subjugating the nations surrounding his Mongol homeland.

It was at this point that the Khwarezmian Empire did the biggest blunder in Human history. Genghis wanted a trade pact with the Shah of Khwarezm and he sent a group of three ambassadors
On 1218 AD, Three ambassadors (one Muslim & two Mongols) were sent to meet the shah himself. But the Shah had both of the Mongols shaved and had the Muslim beheaded.

This was seen as a grave insult to the Khan himself, who considered ambassadors "as sacred and inviolable."
Genghis was so angry that he paused his Chinese campaign & started what is often called a Holocaust of the Islamic world.

By 1219 AD, the Mongol Army reached the borders of the Khwarezmian Empire. The cities of Bukhara & Urgench and the capital Samarkand was destroyed.
The Shah was killed soon after the war started and in the ensuing war, lasting less than two years, the Khwarezmian Empire was totally wiped out from pages of History.

Population of Khwarezmian Empire (1218) : 2.7 Million
Population of Khwarezmian Empire (1221) : 0.3 Million
The Khwarezmian prince Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu fled to Kabul and the Mongols were pursuing him (under their greatest general Subutai).

Mingburnu then reached Indus and entered into an alliance with the Khokhars and captured Lahore.
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu sought refuge with Iltutmish (the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate) against the Mongols.

But Iltutmish was too smart and knew that he could enrage the Mongols by helping the young prince.

The next move of Iltutmish saved the Indian Sub Continent.
Iltutmish marched towards Lahore with a large army and drove Mingburnu out of Lahore to Western Persia.

The Mongols respected the decision of the Delhi Sultanate, and Subutai went to Europe and Genghis back to China. Thus the first wave of Mongol Horde was stopped at Indus.
If the Delhi Sultanate had offered refuge to the Khwarezmian prince, Subutai & Genghis probably would have attacked North India.

And then they would have ransacked entire Indian subcontinent. No force on earth could have stopped Subutai (one of the greatest Generals of all time)
After Genghis' death, the Mongol Empire was divided (Technically). The Delhi Sultanate faced sporadic Mongol assaults under Ogedei Khan and Mongke Khan.

But without the leadership of Subutai and Genghis, the Mongol Army struggled as years passed.
The main concentration of the Mongols was Middle East, Europe and China.

Baghdad (The largest city on earth at that time) was wiped out in 1258, and its entire population of 1.1 million was massacred. It was the end of the Abbasid Caliphate.
The caliph Al-Mustasim was captured and was rolled up in a rug, and the Mongols rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth would be offended if it were touched by royal blood.

For the first time in Muslim History, Islam had no Caliph.
By the end of 13th century, the Mongol Empire then broke up into various Khanates. The Chagatai Mongols would lead several attacks on India (in the 1290s and 1300s).

At this time, Alauddin Khilji was successful in not just stopping the Mongols but also pushing them back.
The Mongol threat prompted Khilji to fortify Delhi & build a new capital at Siri.

In 1203, Khilji made a tower of 8000 - 60000 decapitated Mongol heads (sources vary) after repelling the Mongol invasion & cemented them on walls of Siri (Head) fortress.
The Chagatai Khanates disintegrated & from the ashes rose Timurlane. Timur invaded India in 1398 after crossing the Hindukush mountains. Timur aimed to "restore the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan".

It was said that for three months after Timur left, no living thing moved in Delhi
India was one of about 4 major regions which the Mongol Empire tried and failed to conquer in their prime: India, Japan, Egypt and Western Europe.

After the Mongols, came the plague 'Black Death'. Again India & Japan survived.

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