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1/ "note the use of the phrase “modern times” in the title of chapter 1. This time frame is an imposed restriction since the suspicion or occurrence of clergy malfeasance is no new note in the history of deviance & criminality."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom", Preface
2/ "I coined the term clergy malfeasance...to merge religion & criminological concepts. Clergy is generally meant to be synonymous with cleric (by which any religious functionary with formal or delegated or self-delegated authority, ...). ...
3/ "Malfeasance can be construed as a religious leader’s malpractice...or cruel treatment or actions contrary to official (fiduciary) obligations to safeguard the interests and persons of lay persons, parishioners, or disciples. ...
4/ "...I use the terms clergy malfeasance, clergy abuse, clergy exploitation, & clergy misconduct interchangeably. Not all such actions fall into criminal categories, but all are considered deviant by the norms of communities of faith & the larger societies in which they occur."
5/ Tweeting quotes from Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom" (2007), which was recommended to me by @LoriAnneThomps2

So grateful for people who provide language for the things, and thereby empower people.
6/ "When there have been witnesses 2 & reported experiences of clergy misconduct y do some communities of faith begin 2 fragment & others don't? Y do some believers rally behind their leaders even if the latter r exposed as culpable or crooked in the face of undeniable evidence?"
7/ "In the process of asking difficult strategic questions, he [Shupe herein] performs a biopsy on the American body religious and he diagnoses a cancer. All accurate diagnoses are gifts"

~Richard Sipe, Introduction to Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom"
8/ "Clergy misconduct has always centered on three issues: power, money, and sex."

~Richard Sipe, Introduction to Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom"
9/ "Power, authority, and public reputation, balanced by obedience, faith, and trust, are the sociological archetypes of clergy malfeasance. They form the organizational and emotional elements of the opportunity structures provided by religions."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
10/ "Clerical malfeasance & its destructive consequences are not limited to individuals. Because victimization is a social and systemic reality, it affects...communities of faith... &...groups who witness this victimization"

~Richard Sipe, in Introduction to A.S., "SOTK"
11/ "Caution about giving scandal is frequent in canon law (twenty-nine times). The dictum to 'not to give scandal' is impressed upon students in Catholic education as early as the first grade."

~Richard Sipe, in Introduction to Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
12/ "Victims of abuse & their families r the heroes of the current drama playing out in the United States. They are the whistleblowers who've fought gargantuan odds within & outside the church 2 credibly accuse the clerical elite to account for its malfeasance & hypocrisy."

~RS
13/ "Most...sexual activity of priests & bishops-masturbation, crossgender dressing,...some pornographic materials, & nonharassing consensual sexual activity with adult women & men who are free of any power differential or psychic vulnerability—is not contrary to the civil laws."
14/ OMFSM I LOVE Richard Sipe's careful explicit specific description of the type of sexual activity with adults by clergy which is not contrary to civil law, in his introduction to Anson Shupe's "SOTK": "nonharassing, consensual, no power differential nor psychic vulnerability"
15/ "When personal sexual betrayal is coupled with institutional neglect, denial, attack, conspiracy 2 hide abuse, protection of the abuser, & self-justification, immeasurable harm is inflicted on the victims, their families, the church community, & society at large."

~RS, in AS
16/ "The hierarchical responses, predictable by Shupe’s critique of social exchange and the clergy elite, fanned the flame by their denials. They fed the conflagration with the revelation of their complicity, conspiracy to deceive, & cover-up of crime."

~R. Sipe, in A.S., "SOTK"
17/ "Although the board @USCCB interviewed 85 individuals, including sociologists Dean Hoge & Andrew Greeley, its report (2004) is superficial. It touches on crisis problems & organizational mistakes, but it leaves the structure of abuse firmly in place."

~R.S., in A.S., "SOTK"
18/ Wow this latter reminds me SO much of precisely what has happened @willowcreekcc and @glnsummit, this very year.
19/ "Collusion 2 intimidate victims & conspiracy 2 conceal abuse is prominent in the judgment of all 4 reports made public. [@usccb]’s own reports conclude that church authorities are not capable of dealing with the problem of sexual abuse of minors by their clergy.

~R. Sipe
20/ "The clerical culture is still largely resistant to the degree of accountability and transparency needed to assure victims and society at large that they are safe from sexual abuse ..."

~Richard Sipe, in his introduction to Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
21/ "the Catholic Church for all its history and wealth is in a situation similar to its predicament at the time of the Protestant Reformation—and then it died in half of the European continent."

~Richard Sipe, in his introduction to Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
22/ "...clergy misconduct in North American society is a constant, not a variable, over time and it would behoove the somewhat ahistorical mass media to treat the phenomenon as such."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
23/ "Clergy malfeasance has been defined as 'the exploitation & abuse of a religious group’s believers by the elites of that religion in whom the former trust' It is the unpleasant underbelly of organized religion.
[It] is 'normal' in the Durkheimian sense that it is ubiquitous."
24/ "to understand why such behavior can & does occur in religious organizations cannot be reduced to the psychological motives of greedy, weak, or sick personalities. Clergy malfeasance occurs in a systemic, or structured, context ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
25/ "I begin this analysis by stating several axiomatic assumptions, building on both Durkheim’s concept of a social fact having a separate reality sui generis beyond psychology and grounded in realities of power, conflict, and inequality inherent in most religious life."

~A.S.
26/ Here's what I found for "sui generis": "a Latin term which means of its own kind/genus. something that's unique in its characteristics. often used in analytic philosophy to indicate an idea, an entity, or a reality which cannot be included in a wider concept."
27/ "1st, and most important, religious groups and institutions can be understood as hierarchies of unequal power."

Here begin Anson Shupe's 5 Initial Axioms, in his "Spoils of the Kingdom"
28/ "2nd, those in elite positions possess a greater power of moral persuasion & in some institutions even the theological authority to deny laity access to privileges of membership, including the ultimate spiritual trump of withholding the hope of salvation."

~Anson Shupe
29/ "3rd, churches represent a unique hierarchy in which those occupying lower statuses in religious organizations r encouraged & perhaps taught 2 trust in the benevolent intentions, fiduciary reliability, selfless motives, & spiritual insights/wisdom of their leaders."

~A.S.
30/ "4th, and most significant for victims, trusted hierarchies provide special “opportunity structures” for potential exploitation, abuse, and mismanagement of church organization resources (particularly finances and members) by leaders for their own purposes.

~Anson Shupe
31/ 5th, the nature of trusted hierarchies systematically (i.e., in predictable, even inevitable ways) provides opportunities and rationales for such deviance.

Here end Anson Shupe's 5 Initial Axioms, in his "Spoils of the Kingdom"
32/ "...once the malfeasant deeds become known, a sociological question looms: What is the chain reaction of responses from 4 primary audiences: the perpetrators themselves, the immediate victims, the other church elites, & the larger community of faith?"

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
33/ "A not-infrequent response to request for a written abuse/harassment policy was that none existed because 'we don’t have such a policy because our church doesn’t have that problem.'...This defensive posture was the norm rather than the exception."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
34/ "Lebacqz & Barton (1991) conducted a series of surveys of several hundred Protestant clergy, males & females, & found ~10% had become sexually involved with congregants."

Not "involved". #abuseofpower
35/ "A Christianity Today survey cited by Lebacqz & Barton discovered a higher statistic: almost 1/4 of the clergy respondents had behaved sexually with members of their flocks in ways they themselves acknowledged as 'wrong.'"

not "behaved sexually". rather abused power.
36/ "Conway & Conway (1993) found 37% of surveyed ministers admitted to 'inappropriate sexual behavior' with congregants, & 12% acknowledged they had experienced a sexual affair with at least 1 person in their congregations."

not "affair". not "experienced". #rape #perpetrated
37/ "A 1990 report issued by the United Methodist Church found that almost 1/5 laywomen & as much as 31% of female clergy had been sexually harassed by local pastors"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
38/ "A report by the Presbyterian Church USA claimed that during the early 1990s an estimated 10–23% of the denomination’s clergy engaged in sexual harassment or physical contact with congregants or church employees"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
39/ "In sum, the results of denominational surveys point to the fact that no religious group has a monopoly on the specific sexual dimension of clergy misconduct."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
40/ "In the Texas sample, 4.6% knew someone firsthand who had experienced of ministerial abuse, not infrequently physical and violent. 2.8% had directly experienced mental, economic, or physical abuse by a member of the clergy; thus a total of almost 8% ..."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
41/ "the basic fact remains: clergy malfeasance is neither a region-specific nor denomination-specific problem. And it is not simply a matter of sexual predation."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
42/ "Case studies to illustrate the inductive analyses in subsequent chapters are drawn exclusively from North America. They represent five communities of faith, either indigenous or long-established transplants from other continents, or mixtures of both. ..."
43/ "...they are: Roman Catholics, Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Protestant African Americans, white evangelical Protestants, and First Nations Canadians (Amerindians) (alternately, aboriginals or Native Americans)."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
44/ "Most important for addressing clergy malfeasance in this broadly identified [white] Protestant evangelical community of faith are two commonly shared characteristics and assumptions that indirectly promote victimization. ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
45/ "1st, there is often a naive trust in fellow religionists, that is, that kindred “brothers” or “sisters” or organizations identified with the community of faith are more worthy of confidence than similar characters outside the faith. .."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
46/ "...Con artists and schemesters know well how to infiltrate these groups and manipulate such denominational and sectarian loyalties."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
47/ "Second, evangelical Protestants are prone to the theological temptation of triumphalism, which in turn further increases their vulnerability to economic exploitation. ...a significant number of Christians have believed that Protestant America has a special covenant with God"
48/ "They were caught up in a flurry of activity, confident of God’s approval for their plans. They were racing madly ahead with schemes for personal piety, for church growth, for social improvement and moral reform, for missionary enterprise..."

~DWF, in A. Shupe, "SOTK"
49/ "A separate community of faiths representing an ethno-racial category of peoples involuntarily blended into a single 1 by several denominations that exploited them are the Canadian 'aboriginals' or North American Indians-or, as in their own modern terms, the 'First Nations.'"
50/ "What in retrospect was an attempt at cultural genocide was at the time seen as a deliberately manipulated effort to erase native languages and cultural traditions in the name of modernity and nationalization."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
51/ "The result was that such residential schools & the Canadian government witnessed over 8,000 complaints & lawsuits of sexual, physical, & culture abuse during the late twentieth century. How much abuse occurred earlier is unknown."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
52/ "In 1 sense this 5th faith community is artificial, being a political creation of the Canadian government in which 1st Nations Americans were coerced into joining 4 separate Christian denominations in an attempt to erase their previously sovereign identities."

~A.S., "SOTK"
53/ "First Nations may be an ethnic category, but their experiences, if more systemic, nevertheless came at the hands of agents of religious denominations, as did the victims of the other groups."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
54/ "I operationalize throughout this analysis with cases taken from three general categories: sexual, economic, and excessive authoritative. ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
55/ "... (I have had feminist colleagues tell me that forms of various clerical abuses are all authoritative in nature. However, I can present examples which do not involve either sexual or economic advantages for the leader, hence I retain the 3 categories.)"

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
56/ "One who inveterately clips newspaper & magazine articles, collects books & videotapes of tv 'news magazine' reports, [etc.] .... easily ends up with a fair mountain of cases of sexual deviance across a broad spectrum of religion."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
57/ Anson Shupe is doing my head and heart in, and I feel the crying reflex, but seem to have run out--like that feeling you get like you're going to sneeze, but then you can't. Like that, but with crying. FUCK.
58/ "There is an abundance of publicly available information on instances involving Protestant clergy & related church caregivers concerning the latter’s adultery, child abuse & pedophilia, consumption of Internet pornography, and so forth."

not "adultery"

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
59/ "Clerical economic exploitation closely parallels both secular white-collar & corporate crimes. Undoubtedly the latter are the more important & extensive 2 of the 3 criminal & deviant focuses for understanding the domain of clergy malfeasance."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
60/ "Just as white-collar/corporate secular crimes receive less media attention than street crimes yet r responsible for more widespread damage, the media pay more attention 2 sexual exploitation by clergy than 2 clergy economic exploitation which affects a larger number..."

~AS
61/ "These economic types are embezzlement, investment schemes, misrepresented missions, and the related mail and wire frauds of televangelists, among others."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
62/ "Misrepresented Missions & Mail-Wire Fraud Fraudulent missions represent a broad category of economic exploitation since so many investment schemes tout themselves as ultimately having missionary, scriptural, or world-redeeming goals."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
63/ "...for believers in a given tradition, religious authority is a part of social reality and represents a very real form of power—usually the more ecclesiastical the group, the more powerful."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
64/ "Abuse of authority by a religious leader is defined here as excessive monitoring and controlling of members’ livelihoods, resources, and lifestyles to enrich that leader in either money or in furthering clerical power."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
65/ "Admittedly, this third is the 'grayist' form of clergy malfeasance. ... It occurs when leaders try to lend the 'color' of spiritual authority to their personal desires and needs"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
66/ "Threats can range from loss of community support and spiritual salvation to loss of office, spoiled reputation, or even physical implications such as tragic illness or accidents as divine punishment."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
67/ "A prime example of this form of exploitation can be seen in excesses in shepherding or discipling. The assumption here is that some religionists are further advanced spiritually than others , & thus the latter must be closely mentored for their own moral development."

~A.S.
68/ OMFSM @katdurnil see 67/ above. So. Shorecrest/Heritage!
69/ "'Spiritual discernment' to interpret others’ needs & constructive paths, without some formal theological * psychological anchors, seems rarely a “gift” but a learned sympathy, and even then trained clergy can get it terribly, sociologically wrong."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
70/ "The five communities of faith briefly described in this chapter provide the factual “meat” for inductive theorizing about clergy malfeasance and the social exchange process that together create networks of victimization."

again: "networks of victimisation"!

~A.S., "SOTK"
71/ "The subsequent chapters address 3 audiences witnessing this victimization: the direct victims themselves & their sympathizers & advocates, the perpetrators & their elite protectors, & the larger community, consisting of both believers & nonbelievers."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
72/ "... the leading question will be: Why should we not be satisfied to view clergy misdeed & congregant exploitation as isolated interpersonal incidents?"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of The Kingdom"

#yes
#SoMuchThis
#SystemsOfAbuse
#NetworksOfVictimization
#NetworksOfVictimisation
73/ Here ends Chapter One of Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom", entitled "Communities of Faith and Clergy Malfeasance in Modern Times".

Up next: Chapter Two-"The Logic of Social Exchange Theory and Clergy Malfeasance"
74/ "...applying a social exchange cost/benefit model 2 help illuminate heinous aspects of clergy malfeasance might initially seem incongruous....social exchanges are conventionally thought of as concerning gift giving/sharing, equity, reciprocity, & distributive justice."

~A.S.
75/ "There is a fundamental, subtle, even subliminal influence of religious faith, in particular, even in the incontrovertible face of leadership betrayal."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
76/ "Mauss assumed, like Durkheim, that any society cannot be reduced merely to the sum of its individuals, that it possesses a moral social reality with existence sui generis that can explain social patterns of behavior better than pure social psychology."

~A.S., "SOTK"
77/ "Mauss’s approach of total sociology' instead reiterated that no single transaction, whether of material gifts or symbolic satisfaction, could be understood apart from the larger culture & social structure, which have a greater longevity beyond such transactions"

~A.S.

#yes
78/ "Separate exchanges do not create the undergirding of norms; rather, preexisting norms ratify and regulate the exchanges."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

#yes
#yes
#yes
#yesyesyes
#SoMuchYes
#ThisFramingMakesMeExuberantlyHappy
79/ "most people r born into societies whose cultures already have established the norms of exchange. Most individual transactions, good or bad, in the short run do not alter those exchange understandings. Each generation does not create anew those normative boundaries..."

~A.S.
80/ "Mauss’s point would seem to be that the community (no more an abstraction than the individual considered apart from any social context) sanctions the continuous conditions of exchange moreso than individual satisfaction or breaches of separate transactions."

~A.S., "SOTK"
81/ "Levi-Strauss'...most important contribution was that...the key sociological variables in analyzing exchange reflect social structural principles, not social psychological ones: 'No relationship can be arbitrarily isolated from all other relationships...'"

~A. Shupe "SOTK"
82/ "Levi-Strauss used the analogy of a thread running through a piece of fabric, an 'unlimited series of connections between members of the same group, and between different groups.'"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
83/ "His point is fundamental to this volume’s argument. The origins of norms of social exchange are not found in individual transactions that simply become habitual but are discovered in the larger functional needs of a community 4 order."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
84/ OMFSM Skinner was wrong literally everywhere.

#perfect
85/ "Human beings have a distinct edge over every other animal on the planet, & that edge is called culture; we alone, with a few primate exceptions (such as chimpanzees), can pass cognitive sophistication on from generation to generation."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
86/ "the same processes that produce an overall sense of equity also contradictably induce sentiments of injustice, inequality, and dissatisfaction. Conflict and resentments at inequalities interweave with satisfied elementary needs."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
87/ "social solidarity of microcommunities ([.e.g.,] churches) & macro ones (e.g., societies) is indelibly linked to the outcomes of social exchange processes. Which came 1st, individual transactions [or] emergent normative context, is not terribly important for this analysis."
88/ "In particular, his [Michael Hecher's] theory of solidarity has important implications of any understanding of social reactance to clergy malfeasance."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
89/ "Hechter distinguishes between compensatory groups, which reward member conformity with tangible units of reward (such as salaries, fees for services, rank privileges, and the like), and obligatory groups, which dispense more subjective, symbolic rewards"

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
90/ "Obligatory groups in religion often posture themselves as monopolies of truth & spiritual wisdom or claim to be exclusive paths to certain intangible rewards. [E.g.],...the 'good'...could be absolution from sin, access to sacraments, or the assurance/denial of...salvation."
91/ "This stronger dependence provides elites with more emotional and spiritual authority but also renders their possible deviance more of a threat to the organization than if they stood on shorter pedestals as do compensatory elites."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
92/ "Thus in social psychological terms of exchange, compensatory groups rely more on compliance for solidarity, whereas obligatory groups rely more on the ties of identification with a group."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

@katdurnil this makes sense to me.
93/ "This chapter’s review of social exchange model likely satisfies no 1. Critics can easily charge it is too brief on specific theorists & distorts their ideas, ignores other important contributors, & provides a historically inadequate, truncated picture of the philosophy"

~AS
94/ "my purpose has...been to...set the outline of a conceptual framework from which insights can be extracted to further understanding of the clergy malfeasance phenomenon."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
95/ "the theorists would agree...social exchange is the essential process underlying social order & even human communication. (...the origins of civilized writing as we would recognize it...were not concerned with poetry or epic sagas but with keeping records of commerce..."

~AS
96/ "There r sometimes losses of material goods such as financial losses due 2 bogus religious missions...as well as physical harm (such as loss of...marital fidelity) & psychological trauma, but also symbolic debits incurred in terms of reputation, faith, authority, &trust."
~AS
97/ "A critical issue is to reconcile the utilitarian point of view, a very important and vital issue for transactors, with the larger longitudinal meaning of the cultural context of exchanges."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
98/ "No exchange network could stand for long if most exchanges were inequitable and any sense of ratifying social solidarity thereby was continuously undermined."

~Anson Shupe, Spoils of the Kingdom"
99/ "And even if individual unsatisfactory exchange occurs, these may not necessarily discourage transactors (in this case, religious congregants) from future exchange attempts. There are an indefinite number of rationalizations to excuse any bad exchanges."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
100/ Again, in case you missed it: "There are an indefinite number of rationalizations to excuse any bad exchanges."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
101/ Worth repeating once more: "There are an indefinite number of rationalizations to excuse any bad exchanges."

Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
102/ "Moreover, just as most clerics are presumably not pedophiles, philanderers, rapists, or thieves, so likewise most congregants do not directly experience the clergy abuse that occurs. For most people this is the stuff of sensationalist media reports."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
103/ "Significant evidence...suggests the existence in some faith communities of a backlash against critics & perceived ill-meaning messengers of scandal, 'circling the wagons' as it were to reaffirm the integrity of their religious leadership."

~A.S., "SOTK"

#SoMuchThis
104/ "Several propositions which can be inductively investigated are suggested by media and eyewitness testimonies of clergy malfeasance...:"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
105/ "1st, loss of faith in a religious community’s authority should occur in descending order of victimization..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
106/ "...That is, the closer a congregant is to being an actual victim or personally experiences a victim’s grief, the greater the loss of faith and respect for religious authority and greater likelihood of authority challenge."
107/ "there are primary victims (immediate recipients of harm & their families), 2ndary victims (fellow members of the congregation local community of faith), & tertiary victims (the larger community, e.g., denomination, of faith affiliated with the local community of faith)."
108/ "2nd, many victim-assistance movements witness a pendulum movement: from larger ignorance of victimization to discovery to moral panic/alarm and further discovery to a declining moderation of the latter."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
109/ "Given the predilections of communities of faith for solidarity & identity in a competitive, religiously pluralistic society, it would be surprising if defensive, even resentful backlash countermovement activity aimed at critics and media messengers did not occur."

~A. S.
110/ "Scandals..emerge, r widely publicized...thermidor sets in; for 2ndary & tertiary victims as well as whistleblowers & reports of scandals, the outrages lose their edge....congregant audiences want healing, reconciliation, and a return to a trusting community of faith."

~AS
111/ "3rd, & bureaucratically predictable...I shall argue, some clerical elites...intuit this cycle of deviance exposure/alarm, public-relations mea culpas/promises of more alert stewardship, and then intend to return to business as usual."
112/ "There is in some clerics’ longitudinal insulated professional world view a sense that malfeasance is a short-term occasional occurrence, ultimately forgettable, with no serious structural implications. It is a common conceit..2 think they can merely weather the storm."
~AS
113/ "faith is a persistent thing. And faith in the average exchange system is not immediately destroyed by a negative experience.
However, it eventually happens for some actors that the entire cultural context of spiritual exchange is out of balance...."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
114/ "...For others, the dissenters who point this out r portrayed as malcontents out to hurt the system. This is the praxis wherein the defenders of the status quo and the outraged challengers meet, and their activities will be described. ..."

~A.Shupe, "Spoils of the KIngdom"
115/ "...The defenders often have emotional loyalties, ordinations, titles, & the majesty even of tradition. The latter have the same emotional loyalties but also the anger of injury."

~A. Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

113-115 in this thread, @steveryancarter, @revkyleathens
117/ "In any societal competition for scarce resources, material or symbolic, the revolutionaries and reformers as well as the superior power holders have separate privileged ideologies that rationalize their positions."

~A.S., "SOTK"

Oh! But of course!
118/ "all of us...create accounts or narratives 2 explain our own behavior & the same of others. Our social class, gender expectations, educational backgrounds, occupational experiences, & lifestyles condition (as psychologists mean the verb) our perceptions."

~AS

@wad3mullen
@wad3mullen 119/ "It is an axiom that no narrative is ever totally neutral or free of self-interests & preconceptions. This is also true at the unconscious & subliminal levels. Without introspection we are captives of our cultural blinders—a point to be developed in succeeding chapters."
~AS
@wad3mullen 120/ "The implications of this constructionist approach have been examined in some detail for the excuses, rationalizations, and minimalizations sometimes lamely offered by clerical perpetrators and their managers."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
121/ "Through the work of such sociologists as David G. Bromley & associates we see the mechanisms of such narratives. For just 1 example, what social psychologists term corrective face work or political scientists call spin control is evident in the following narrative:..."

~AS
122/ trigger warning for tweets 123-125 in this thread. You can skip them if necessary. =(
123/ "...A Catholic priest is caught in flagrante delicto, his trousers down around his ankles as he lay atop an adolescent girl on her home’s kitchen floor: '[The priest] distinguishes between sexual intercourse and what he calls a ‘reserved embrace’; ...

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
124/ "...'I may have had a reserved embrace,’ he admitted in a deposition.Sexual intercourse, he said, doesn’t occur unless a man clutches a woman with passion and ejaculates into her. ...."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
125/ "...Yes, he had lain atop Susan. Yes, he put his penis in her vagina. But there was ‘no passion, no kissing, no nothing,’ he said. And he had not ejaculated.”

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom", sharing a narrative from Burkett & Bruni (1993)
126/ "The methodology of relying on narratives like the previous one and others in theory building deserves addressing....It is no simple task to play the role of archaeologist in uncovering the memories and facts of any time of exploitation or abuse."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
128/ "Economic swindles of congregants...might seem 2 the victims as unfortunate bad investments;...And in the religious context there can b the reluctance 2 whistleblow or 2 admit 2 being duped, or the desire 2 spare the larger institution or faith tradition’s reputation."
~A.S.
129/ "My approach is to adopt a pragmatic epistemological triangulation of methods that appreciates postmodernist suspicions of much social science but does not throw the baby out with the bath water."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
130/ "[1]...records of adjudicated legal cases. ...[2]personal testimonies of presumed victims which not infrequently can be circumstantially corroborated. ...[3]media investigations which often must meet high evidentiary standards. No single source is fully adequate."

~A. S.
131/ "If, as Foucault argues, the roots of 'knowledge' of social phenomena can be unearthed archaeologically or picked apart sociologically as pertains 2 power & self-interest, then victimization by clergy can be better understood by social science analysis than without it."

~AS
132/ "There are profound issues running as meta-texts throughout this subject and analysis that I pragmatically cannot address: ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom", end of Chapter 2, "The Logic of Social Exhchange Theory & Clergy Malfeasance"
133/ Up next: Chapter 3: "The Iron Law of Clergy Eltism"
134/ "There is an almost inevitable tendency in religious groups, unless they rigorously eschew both institutionalization & cultivation of hierarchy, to regress from the spiritual equality of laity & clergy toward oligarchy, that is, political control of the many by the few."
~AS
135/ "I term this tendency the 'iron law of clergy elitism,' a variant of the 'iron law of oligarchy' explored by... sociologist Robert Michels. [He tried] to explain how the turn-of-the-century proletarian workers’ movement lost its revolutionary and democratic momentum..."
~AS
136/ "...it turned into its own set of corporations, the very thing it started out fighting. He concluded that oligarchy was an irreparable sociological development: ..."
137/ "...'Thus the appearance of oligarchical phenomenon in the very bosom of the revolutionary parties is a conclusive proof of the existence of immanent oligarchical tendencies in every kind of human organization which strives for the attainment of definite ends.'”

~A. Shupe
138/ "Michels reasoned that three social forces virtually ensure oligarchy: 1st, population density renders direct democracy impossible hence requiring at a minimum a republican, or representative, system of governance. ..."
139/ "...2nd,...unavoidable 'apathy' of most citizens/members whose energies and time are typically consumed by mundane obligations of family, work, leisure, and rest. ..."
140/ "...3rd, the inevitability of growing elites’ or representatives’ self-interests, which include indulgence in the “perks” of power: exclusive knowledge; personal aggrandizement; and controlling client, patient, constituent, or congregant awareness of elite behavior."

~A.S.
141/ "..[religious] personal charisma becomes rationalized, bureaucratized, & oligarchic. [Weber] defined personal charisma as a 'certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men & treated as endowed with supernatural,..."

~AS
142/ "'...superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin; or as exemplary & on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader.'”

~MW, in AS
143/ "If religion is about the power of divine wisdom & human inequalities to discern it , then oligarchy & therefore elitism seem inevitable. This point becomes important for understanding repeated, systematic misconduct by clerics and other religious leaders."

~A.S., "SOTK"
144/ "Based on this brief theoretical review, I offer two propositions: ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
145/ "1st, religious elites, out of various demands of professionalization, come 2 identify themselves, rather than the laity..., as the essence of their religious institutions. This identification is their license for furthering their self-interests at the expense of laity."
~AS
146/ "2nd, power inequities between clergy and laity create a culture of deference to the former that in turn promotes a reluctance for laity to whistleblow on religious leaders."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
147/ "In writing of clergy self-identity and congregant/lay deference to clergy authority as elements of cults, one risks confusing the latter term with arguably an overused, imprecise popular term referring to unconventional, generally disapproved religions."

~AS, "SOTK"
148/ "Here I employ cult in its more traditional theological meaning,...as either a system of religious faith expressed in ritual (e.g., Christian communion) or as devotion or homage 2 a personage or group (e.g., in Catholicism, veneration of the Virgin Mary)."

~AS, "SOTK"
149/ "I draw on both meanings to explain 2 complementary dimensions of belief cultivating the tendency toward clergy elitism. These cults of clergy identity as privileged authority & lay deference exist in a complex symbiotic or exchange relationship."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
150/ "...in this exchange, 2 parallel needs of each transactor normally must be met: 1 utilitarian, the other symbolic. For elites, the former needs include personal careerism goals, aggrandizement of resources to promote the organization in the larger social environment,..."
~AS
151/ "...& access to financial resources and lifestyles they could likely not otherwise experience. For laity, these materialist needs are such things as the possibility of obtaining material goals in the way of financial gain/security & good health in the here & now ..."

~A.S.
151/ "...as well as promised intangibles such as salvation or eternal life. The latter are not inconsequential. They are what Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge referred to as constituting 'IOUs,'..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
152/ "Symbolic needs for clerical elites entail a desire to preserve loyalty to their tradition, sometimes reified as sacred truth embodied in their group structure (which aids in rationalizing occasional bad clergy-laity transactions as episodic flukes) ..."

~A.S. "SOTK"
153/ "...and to promote an image of primary group familial solidarity for the entire church enterprise. Laity’s symbolic needs overlap to an extent with clergy’s."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kindgom"
154/ "For example, the functional approach 2 attitudes in psychology emphasizes that beyond utilitarian interests to hold certain attitudes there r also knowledge (informational & social reality clarification/reassurance), expressive (self-realizing or emotionally gratifying),.."
155/ "...and ego defensive (servicing inner or subconscious security drives) consequences for individuals to adhere to a faith tradition (McGuire 1969; Katz 1960)."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
156/ "Faith can provide enough confidence in the temporary regime of religious authority 2 inspire adherents to hold out for eventual [IOUs], 2 preserve the perception of charisma in current elites, & to justify 'apathy' that leads 2 a discouragement of questioning those elites."
157/ "leadership authority in faith contexts...manifests a self-sustaining quality...born of resource control & ideological social influence over laity, tradition, an organizational need for rational informational specializations among elites, & elites’ self-interest..."

~A.S.
158/ "But in the case of religious authority and abuses of it there are additional social psychological dimensions in both clergy identity and lay deference as illustrated within the various faith traditions considered here."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
159/ "What is important to focus on, therefore, is what currently sustains the exchange norms that generate clergy authority."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
160/ "There are actually 2 seminal reasons for clerical prerogatives, whether priestly or prophetic, that have important implications for misconduct."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
161/ "One is the significance of having a transcendent supernatural force, typically conceived as a deity, at the root of the faith tradition on which religious elites stake their claims."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
162/ @katdurnil perhaps this latter touches on why we, and so many others, turned away from belief in God.
163/ "A 2nd source of clergy privilege can be seen in the transactional concept of leadership-not defined here as a downward-flowing 1-way relationship of power between guru/priest/rabbi/pastor & congregants but rather as an implicit contract of reciprocity & compliance."

~A.S.
164/ "Preserving Authority: Strategies in this context r defined as general policies or even leadership orientations 2 protect authority & assure continuing receipt of lay deference. Tactics r the more immediate, middle-range means taken 2 promote a given strategy instance."

~AS
165/ "These are the levels within which religious elites deal with clergy malfeasance & maintain their own statuses in the face of malfeasance scandals as well in the short run maintain deference from laity."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
166/ "Strategies [are] meta-responses by religious organizations to revelations of clergy malfeasance for...3 audiences: to protect:

-the organization’s reputation
-the elite perpetrators
-(less often) future victims & to compensate present & past victims."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
167/ "'leaders...have to protect their organizations by stretching, evading or denying the...truth about it. Those making this defense r the ones who do not really believe in the church, who think it can survive only by acting like any other political body'"

~G. Wills, in ~A.S.
168/ "'The idea that nothing negative should be said about past Church leaders was a natural consequence of the position that nothing negative should be said about present leaders.'"

~Davis Bitton, in ~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"

of interest, perhaps, to you, @jenniferr1971
@jenniferr1971 169/ "This strategic pressure for conformity to protect organizational reputation can result in attempted censorship of individual scholars and intellectuals."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
170/ "effort spent preserving authority is not limited 2...only pyramidal faith traditions....an enormous...number of Protestants-particularly white evangelicals-[believe] the USA has, if not some divinely based 'manifest destiny, then certainly a special covenant with God."

~AS
171/ "The Role of Accessories after the Fact:
Strategies to shield clerical colleagues from the consequences of their actions flow both downward & upward...from higher elites in hierarchical groups as well as from lesser fiduciaries in more congregational church bodies."

~A.S.
172/ "it is not unusual in the violation of clerical fiduciary trust 4 repeat perpetrators 2 be further insulated by...accessories after the fact...those who do not directly commit the deviance but nevertheless facilitate its commission & even conspire 2 conceal it."

~A. Shupe
173/ worth repeating: "it is not unusual"!

Why is this oddly comforting? These horrors are ubiquitous. Victims are not alone.

tweeting quotes from Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom"
174/ "One could say this protection of elites by fellow professionals is a natural tendency in stratified groups. Police do it—as do doctors, therapists, university professors, lawyers, and members of the clergy."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
175/ "In a variety of ways, from merely looking the other way to using authority to scheme to conceal the deviance, clerical colleagues literally become such accessories."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
176/ @LoriAnneThomps2 thank you again. I knew, but I didn't know. Thank you.

Also: learned today: Anson Shupe had black belts in Judo and Karate.
@LoriAnneThomps2 177/ "Canadian Church Strategies with Amerindians: Cultural genocide was only the general strategy; specific tactics, as seen in the next chapter section, included verbal demeanment, literal indentured servitude, physical beatings, malnour-ishment, & sexual exploitation."

~A.S.
@LoriAnneThomps2 178/ "Compnsation 4 victims has been highly reportd in the media. Despite vast sums...the public only sees the tip of an unknown but probably larger iceberg. This is a largely blanketed area of legal fact. So often 'deals' have been struck between the attorneys of plaintiffs"
~AS
@LoriAnneThomps2 179/ "Tactics are the immediate means used to implement larger strategies preserving leadership authority in the face of scandals. One way to display tactical variety...is to employ Amitai Etzioni’s typology of compliance and exchange (1968). According to Etzioni: ..."

~A. Shupe
180/ "...[1] Normative tactics involve appeals to tradition, loyalty, common values, and sentiments and ultimately rest on persuasion, both to assuage victims and contain elites’ revelations of fellows’ misdeeds."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
181/ "...[2] Utilitarian tactics depend on self-interest and, often, the expectation of economic rewards and advantages. Lawsuit settlements...for example, sometimes come with 'gag rules' stipulating that neither side can comment publicly about the cases"

~A. S. "SOTK"
182/ "...[3] Coercive tactics involve negative sanctions threatened or applied, the latter portending loss of the religious benefits that groups hold out in exchange for conformity. Coercive tactics, such as ostracism, are most often symbolic."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
183/ "Normative attempts to preserve clerical authority cost religious groups least...Utilitarian tactics are...more costly. Coercive tactics represent a breakdown in normative or utilitarian exchanges...& signal a failure by elites 2 maintain...authority & encourage deference."
184/ "all 3 measures in Etzioni’s typology are nonrecursive...once a group’s leaders introduce coercive tactics, they rarely can backtrack down the hierarchy of sanctions to less severe levels...The progression of tactics is typically escalated from sentiment to punishment."

~AS
185/ "such leaders tend 2 blame the victims ('shoot the messengers' for the unpleasant claims of victimization...) or misname/misconceive the problem (as a leader’s psychological failure, not systemic)."
186/ "Protection of the religious body becomes clerically operationalized as 'justice' for both accused perpetrators & purported victims...Terms such as 'reconciliation', 'healing', or 'forgiveness' become substituted for 'denial', 'neutralizing', or 'sanctioning'."

~Anson Shupe
@jdahlmd @NancyLBeach @Chelseaker @wad3mullen @futuristguy @MelFisher13 @leannemellado @revkyleathens @AllanDemond @byJimHenderson @lauriegnyt @bobsmietana @emmillerwrites @chrondigger @TrbSeeker @chicagotribune 188/ "Normative appeals by elites, however, while relatively inexpensive in the short run, are ticking time-bombs in that the charisma of office or the charisma of an individual personality fade dramatically ..."

~Anson Shupe "Spoils of the Kingdom"
189/ "...(1) for lay-people who perceive that they have been deceived and lied to about Pastor A, whose deviant actions, it turns out, are not anomalous events but rather part of a pattern and involve an orchestrated cover-up, and ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
190/ "...(2) when victims, out of spontaneous or deliberate contact, develop a realization that they are actually part of a class of victims previously encouraged to preserve the mantle of clergy authority through silent deferences."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
191/ "Some normative attempts by elites 2 contain or neutralize scandal & preserve authority are examples of what social psychologists term preventative face-work, that is, anticipating the need for damage control in expectation of revelation of an embarrassing event."

~A.S.
192/ "Other tactics represent corrective face-work, that is, “spin” attempts to neutralize irreparable acts no longer able to be concealed."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
193/ "Some corrective face-work, offered generally to journalists and intended for public as well as for congregants’ consumption, can create a surreal impression or sound (to be charitable) far-fetched."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
194/ "While clerical elites tend 2 fall back on formal guidelines of procedure, protocol & legalities, lay victims, including parents & spouses as 2ndary, indirect victims, develop a keen sense of frustration with churches’ deliberate stonewalling or simple bureaucratic inertia."
195/ "Perceivng their treatment 2 b the result of spiritual bankruptcy or insensitivity within the institution’s leadership, the laity adopt mirror strategies-retaining attornys, instituting lawsuits & abandoning normative appeals in favor of remunerative or coercive strategies.”
196/ "The basic issue, however, is not really one of financial settlement, even when the courts become involved. The money demanded by victims is intended to have a punitive effect. The real goal is to seek public recognition of clerical wrongs."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
197/ "'This isn't about money, it’s about restitution...a Christian tenet. It’s not about forgiveness, it’s about resolution. It’s hard 2 forgive an institution that's not making an adequate attempt to resolve the problem' Deference thereby fades into whistleblowing and anger."
198/ "'coming out' as a lay victim, w/...the anger, frustration, & costs of shame, doesn't occur in a cultural vacuum. An irony is those elites may b able...4 a time due to size, public profile, & economic or political influence, 2 discourage public awareness of clergy scandal."
199/ "Coercive measures to maintain clergy authority range from ecclesiastical wrist-slapping to threats to suspend sacramental privileges or job security to actual corporal punishment of congregants."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
200/ "These repressive actions represent defensive counterpunches in the face of the failure of both normative &utilitarian tactics to preserve the appearance of the equitable transaction of clergy authority/lay deference."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
201/ "Here the spirit of reconciliation is abandoned. The transaction is essentially canceled by elites to forestall contamination of other laypeople’s deference."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
202/ "The most systematic example in North America of continuous coercion 2 extract lay deference & reinforce 2 clerical authority concerns the Indian residential schools in Canada. Many schools operated essentially as slave systems, with brutality employed 2 maintain conformity"
203/ "Religious elites tend to be insulated from the same suspicions or criticisms secular elites receive. And this is 1 reason they on occasion can operate as wolves within the fold, committing secondary, or repeat, deviance on those who are their fiduciary trusts."

~AS, "SOTK"
204/ "To recapitulate the 2 key propositions of this chapter: [1] The iron law of clergy elitism assumes that church elites merge their professional self-interests with the good of the overall institution,..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
205/ "...while [2] power inequities in clerical/lay statuses create a culture of deference within the latter level. Both facilitate, though not necessarily cause, the perpetuation of malfeasance."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
206/ "Victim remediation occurs at a cost to clergy elites’ authority, hence undermining the credibility of churches’ fiduciary moral authority, for several reasons. ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
207/ "1st, [victim remediation] is an admission of fiduciary failure, implicating in an embarrassing way potentially the entire organization’s leadership, whether in sins of commission or omission."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
208/ "2nd, remediation provides fodder to any group’s critics, internecine or otherwise. For example, large sums of financial remediation helped create an entire generation of nondeferent Roman Catholic victim-critics in groups such as SNAP, the Linkup, Voice of the Faithful ..."
209/ "Third, once the onus of victim remediation is set, it becomes a master stigma that snowballs into other discoveries of deviance that once might have gone unnoticed."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
210/ "the groupthink of the organization can draw its leaders to embrace illegal or immoral behavior. Then that solidarity can produce a leadership culture of elitist, oligarchic proportions that promotes malfeasance."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
211/ "obfuscation of illegal acts to protect the faith community’s reputation can emerge."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

for example, see @glnsummit, @willowcreekcc, and
212/ "Clergy elitism is a social fact of religious institutions in general, as are the rationalizations for authority, privilege, & leadership insulation. ... this elitism is more sociological than moral or ethical, however painful the breach of trust is to congregants."

~A.S.
213/ "lay deference, which apparently can continue even in the knowledge of abuses, follows lines of individual cognitive needs for assurance and clarification of life’s joys, challenges, and tragedies, which function as rewards in sometimes costly relationships."

~Anson Shupe
214/ "Not everyone interminably stands content with religious transactions gone bad or ministerial admonishments that justice will be done or that forgiveness of errant clergy is the best course. In the next chapter I turn to those people."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
215/ Here ends chapter 3, "The Iron Law of Clergy Elitism". Up next: Chapter 4: "Authenticity Lost: Faith and Victimization"

Tweeting thoughts from sociologist Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom"
216/ "It might be supposed that there is a linear or direct relationship between the amount of clergy abuse recognized by laity & the subsequent loss of clerical authority. That is, awareness or experience of such abuse should lead to decreased faith in straight-line fashion."
217/ "In actuality, the relation between abuse & faith is curvilinear, following different types of attempts to preserve clergy authority in the face of scandal"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
218/ Oh goody. We're going to have three stages of a bifurcated model. Delicious.
219/ "There is a double irony here. First, normative and coercive attempts to achieve/protect the basis of the faith community may strengthen loyalty to the tradition, but such loyalty does not necessarily transfer to the current leadership regime or to later ones."

~A. Shupe
220/ "2nd, elites’ use of utilitarian means to resolve malfeasance disputes may 'backfire' & suggest to complainants that rejection of clerical authority is the best overall strategy in seeking redress ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
221/ "Victimization reaction 2 clergy misconduct follows a curvilinear path:
1. Both normative & coercive attempts to contain clerical authority ultimately tend to elicit a defense of the larger faith community’s authenticity. ..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
222/ "...2. Utilitarian attempts at containment more often elicit cynicism and a loss of faith."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
223/ "Normative attempts of clergy-lay reconciliation & attempts to protect the ecclesiastical practices seek emotional closure. So also do coercive measures, but forcibly. This is a significant element in the formation of countermovements that come to plague religious elites."
224/ Seriously I'm so excited to see how Shupe is going to lay out his argument for this.

Squeeeeeeeee.
225/ "To reiterate, from the standpoint of the victimized audience, there is presumed a nonlinear relationship (as fig. 2 shows) between maintenance of faith in a larger denominational tradition & the tactics used by elites to suppress awareness of scandal..."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
226/ "...(imploring allegiance versus strong-arming it versus purchasing silence about the deviance).

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
227/ "In the short run normative tactics buy time for perpetrators or their elite protectors, attempting to sully the critics; in the long run these measures try to identify the specific incidences as anomalies from the faith tradition."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
228/ "In the most cynical sense, normative tactics, in the terminology of the criminological study of con games and frauds, 'cool out the mark,'"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
229/ "that is, they [normative tactics] persuade the victim to accept his or her victimization as the result of bad luck, a bad choice, outside enemies, or a fluke as opposed to a deliberate swindle and violation of fiduciary responsibility."

~A. Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
230/ "Coercive tactics by elites to preserve leadership legitimacy often produce similar effects on maintenance of faith, with the caveat that congregants may come to draw a previously unobserved distinction between current clerical elites & the larger community of faith"

~A.S.
231/ "Particularly if they initially believed the normative appeals made by clergy elites and later find they were misled, lied to, stalled, or simply stonewalled in lieu of meaningful redress, ..."
232/ "congregants develop animosity against the living figures of authority who committed these artifices but not necessarily against the faith tradition itself."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

@Chelseaker, @NancyLBeach tweets 231 and 232 here perhaps interesting.
@Chelseaker @NancyLBeach 233/ "In this sense, clergy malfeasance and the resulting anger at inaction by elites can ironically empower victims and their advocates who no longer believe the normative appeals but have not abandoned the community of faith and its traditions."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
234/ "Indeed, they [radically empowered victims] seek to reclaim both [the faith community & traditions] for themselves, defying the iron law of clergy elitism, “laicizing” (in Catholic terminology) the prerogatives of even the most hierarchical clerical systems."

~A.S., "SOTK"
235/ "Ordinarily, coerced compliance fosters no identification with leaders or institutions, for coercion is a form of aggression, and psychologically aggression breeds counteraggression and resentment."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
236/ "The long-term acid test of compliance occurs when the organization has to deal with the raw reality of utilitarianism in the face of lawsuits and settlements"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
237/ "Utilitarian tactics by church elites involve pragmatism, legalism, bald negotiations, and payoffs, hardly the inspiration for faith maintenance."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
238/ "Symbolic forms of compliance no longer suffice, & the result can be-depending on individual personality, absence of or support from significant others, intensity of belief, and similar microfactors-a departure from the faith community. Here authenticity is most often lost."
239/ "The Roman Catholic and Mormon communities of faith and the conglomerate of Canadian denominations that sought to 'anglocize' Amerindians offer the best (or grossest) examples of large groups trying to compensate laypeople for their systematic victimization."

~A.S., "SOTK"
240/ "Earlier I mentioned the estimate that by the year 2000 the Roman Catholic Church would have likely paid out $1billion to abuse victims. This now seems a patent underestimate.

~
Anson Shupe, "SOTK", 2007

Actually, now $4billion: newsweek.com/over-3-billion…

#smallsmile
241/ "Alternately, no one has ever suggested a guesstimate for settlements in lawsuits against the @LDSchurch; that institution has been generally successful in sealing court records after the suits were, as lawyers say, “amicably resolved.”

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
242/ "Some question motives of plaintiffs, wondering if they are out to profit from well-heeled religious organizations in which they no longer hold faith. The cynics are partially correct. Interviews & anecdotal conversations with plaintiffs indeed reveal a loss of faith..."
243/ "... & there is a wish to punish the religious institution in question. But money is not the primary end. Revenge, 'wanting to send a message' of deterrence or reform, & vindication underlay most claims for restitution.

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
244/ "I never encountered a victim who set out in the beginning of pressing a grievance...to 'cash in' on allegations of exploitations. They simply want to stop the exploitation...& they often were promised justice. The institution’s disingenuousness led to the suits."

~A. Shupe
245/ "But this is a natural result of the American legal system. With no state-sponsored religion, there is also no specific tradition of state mechanisms for investigating or prosecuting religious groups. Indeed, there is a First Amendment–based reluctance to do so ...

~A.S.
246/ "...Thus, offenses committed by clerics take longer to receive attention by state or local prosecutors. As a result, the task of addressing lay grievances against church leaders often falls to private attorneys in civil suits...

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
247/ "From the victim’s standpoint, failing to secure meaningful structural/personal response from their church leaders often leaves them little recourse but to seek utilitarian responses in the form of lawsuits and compensatory and punitive compensation."

~A. Shupe, "SOTK"
248/ The most important determinant of how victims experience their plights is the reaction of a religious organization when the former come forward with their charges and complaints....

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
249/ "...The religious organization’s reaction affects the members’ sense of fairness and distributive justice. They have voluntarily supported and believed in the benevolence of a group that has purported to have had their ultimate best interests at heart....

~A Shupe, "SOTK"
250/ "...Now they claim to be misused by someone, a fiduciary in power, representing the group. What will group leaders do? What actions any group’s leaders take represent a measure of what can be termed as the organization’s permeability...

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
251/ "...In religious hierarchies of unequal power, groups are permeable to the extent that their administrators and leaders are open to receiving the grievances of lay victims. (Openness here does not refer simply to sympathetically hearing out complainants...

~A Shupe, "SOTK"
252/ "...but rather to acting to construct meaningful, authentic remedies for the malfeasance’s causes and damages.)"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

These latter 2 tweets, 251-252, @btestabutz, @pastorgillen, @glsaus, @AllanDemond
@btestabutz @pastorgillen @GLSAus @AllanDemond 253/ "As the Reverend Thomas Doyle...told an audience of victim-advocates, 'It’s very easy to bury a complaint and complainant in a maze of red tape, bureaucratic confusion, and senseless buzz-words'"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"

See @trdevries.
254/ "Exposure of malfeasance & related accusations until recently have seldom been considered on the basis of preventing further deviance or confronting a potential problem...Rather, reputation, credibility, authenticity, & damage-control have taken precedence."

~AS

@glnsummit
@GLNsummit 255/ "when parishioners realize their spiritual needs r being blatantly bypassed & grievances r being processed more from concern 4 damage-control 4 the organization’s reputation than from concern for the victim’s well-being, there is a profound sense of fiduciary betrayal."

~AS
@GLNsummit 256/ "when parishioners realize their spiritual needs r being blatantly bypassed & grievances r being processed more from concern 4 damage-control 4 the organization’s reputation than from concern for the victim’s well-being, there is a profound sense of fiduciary betrayal."

~AS
257/ "The norms of distributive justice have been abridged, & laypeople at the bottom of the hierarchy abruptly come to define themselves as abused, unfairly treated by an institution in which justice and honesty are supposed to be the ultimate values."

~A. Shupe "SOTK"
258/ "Indeed, the lesson learned in uncovering and confronting economic, sexual, and excessive authoritative clergy abuse resembles strategy in an antiterrorist campaign: constant vigilance."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
259/ "If anything, a single axiomatic conclusion emerges: Honesty about, not containment of, scandalous clergy behavior is the wisest long-range policy."

~Anson Shupe, Spoils of the Kingdom"
260/ "When the implications of the exploitation by religious leaders or people posing as agents of such leaders 'sink in' for the people in the pews or the viewing audience, authenticity can be the casualty."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
261/ Here ends Chapter 4, "Authenticity Lost: Faith and Victimization"

Up next is the final chapter, Chapter 5: "Reactance, Crime, and Sin"

Tweeting quotes from sociologist Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom"
262/ "The essential dimension in faith maintenance and legitimacy during revelations of clergy malfeasance is reactance, institutional or public, to those crimes, sins, and perversities."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
263/ "Throughout this final discussion runs a tension that can be seen at the ordinal level between religious organizations’ attempts to maintain simultaneous influence over...internal and external communities."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
264/ "clergy malfeasance, regardless of the community of faith, violates the exchange [between clergy & laity] because the issue of accountability is suddenly raised, and the laity quickly gain a sense of empowerment out of outrage."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
265/ "There are two arenas of authenticity and legitimacy incumbent on churches: (1) the internal community, that is, believers and supporters; and (2) the larger external community and its institutions..."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
266/ "Religious elites’ successful influence in any one community does not ensure their groups’ successful preservation of authenticity in the other. In the long run an 'authentic' religious community must maintain some enduring balance with both."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
267/ "Figure 3 displays the possible vicissitudes of this internal/external balance in the form of a four-tiered ordinal model in which a plus sign equals a group’s relative dominant achievement and a minus sign equals relative nonachievement."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
268/ "Tier 1 groups are currently dominant. Over time, and often not without past conflict, they have established legitimate public images, likely also economic and political influence, among both followers and nonmembers within a pluralistic scene."

~A. Shupe., "SOTK"
269/ "They [Tier 1 Groups] are most likely to employ all three of Etzioni’s normative, utilitarian, and coercive tactics to stifle internal or external awareness of clergy-laity bad transactions and reaffirm the iron law of clergy elitism."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
270/ "Tier 1 groups have the advantage in 'weathering the storm' of scandal from several factors: the sheer size of the religious enterprise, the automatic assumption of perpetual continuity, and the naive confidence of congregants in the fiduciaries managing their church."

~AS
271/ "at Tier 1, groups’ internal reputations can only be damaged to a point, and attempts to reclaim external authenticity are set in motion by predictable factors."

~Anson Shupe "Spoils of the Kingdom"
272/ "there is a barely examined “pendulum effect” in the reactance to scandal within faith communities."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
273/ "Tier 2 groups are seeking to be dominant, that is, envisioning membership growth and societal influence. Indeed, it is within this tier that most cults, sects, and social movements fall,"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
274/ "scandals about elite misbehavior in Tier 2 groups are less likely to receive wide publicity for two reasons. 1st, the leaders are less well known. 2nd, as such, they have less of a public reputation & journalists and editors are less inclined to cover them."

~A.S., "SOTK"
275/ "The Tier 3 type of group might seem at first glance oxymoronic, for how could such a group maintain a relatively positive or benign public image of legitimacy but not possess it among its members?"

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
276/ "The Tier 3 group is often in a phase of rapid transition in which only an inner circle of elites & accomplices initially appreciate a given group’s level of corruption & self-destructing behavior until either insiders or outside critical agencies reveal the latter"

~A.S.
277/ "During this time of transition from Tier 1 to Tier 3, there must emerge a critical mass of vocal, rebellious individuals organized in a countermovement to classify internal influence as a relative minus."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
278/ "Power, authority, & public reputation, balanced by obedience, faith, & trust, are the sociological archetypes of clergy malfeasance. They form the organizational & emotional elements of the opportunity structures provided by religions...

~A. Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
270/ "They [power, authority, & public reputation, balanced by obedience, faith, & trust] also run like a red letter through all the forms of religious leaders’ misconduct cited in this volume."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
271/ "maintenance of faith & the issues of reactance by audiences r inseparable components of an exchange equation in obligatory groups. For example, when normative or coercive appeals by a church for at least tacit loyalty & support r expended ...

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
272/ "& utilitarian exchange is the final strategy, then the covenental premise of leadership-laity-congregation more characteristic of primary group relations is replaced by a secondary-group contractual model...

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
273/ "Settling grievances over perceived abuse becomes the stuff of attorneys, not prelates or spiritual shepherds. At that point both the rest of the members of the faith community & the larger nonfaith society clearly see the weakening of religious authenticity."

~AS, "SOTK"
274/ Anson Shupe has here helped me understand why the suvivors haven't yet sued @willowcreekcc & @glnsummit.

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
275/ "Reactance as a concept sets understandings of the various audiences—perpetrators, various levels of victims, and various communities of faith—to the malfeasance. Reactance addresses the key social exchange issues of: ...

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
276/ "...
* how hierarchies and their religious authority protect their agents;
* how victims are initially devalued in favor of the institution and its agents;...

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
277/ "...
* how various strategies and tactics are implemented to contain scandals of clergy malfeasance and revealed by moral entrepreneurial insiders and outsiders; and
* how victims and their advocates mobilize to seek equity."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
278/ "the calculus of contrition paired with compensation only works to assuage the larger faith community, because the so-called apathy of most people, born of habit and regularly pressing responsibilities, continually pushes immediate scandals to the periphery of concern....
279/ "But not for primary victims. Even the largest lawsuit settlement is bittersweet at best for them. Thus religious authenticity should be regarded as a continual process of preserving status, not as an objective thing."

~Anson Shupe, "Spoils of the Kingdom"
280/ "A valuable, practical literature on healing congregations as well as preventing pastoral abuse has grown up around those faith communities stressed by clergy misconduct (see, e.g., Kennedy 2001; Friberg and Laaser 1998; Hopkins 1998, 1992; Horst 1998; Gonsiorek 1995; ..."
281/ "For too long criminology has ignored organized religion as a major source of white-collar and corporate crime, and in complementary fashion religion has shirked from examining its own underbelly. This volume has sought to bring the two together..."

~Anson Shupe, "SOTK"
282/ Here ends my tweeting of Anson Shupe's "Spoils of the Kingdom". Profound gratitude again to @LoriAnneThomps2, who recommended it when I asked her if she could direct me to reading to help me understand what she meant by "elite deviance in faith communities"
@LoriAnneThomps2 283/ @threadreaderapp please unroll
@LoriAnneThomps2 @threadreaderapp 284/ Here's the unrolled version if you want to read it threadreaderapp.com/thread/1150201…
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