Excepting for the stone henges of England the ancient history human habitation of Europe is unknown by archeological or other evidences.
11. After 450 years as a republic, Rome became an empire in the wake of Julius Caesar’s rise and fall in the first century B.C.
Will continue with European History tomorrow.
18. A popular uprising was said to have arisen over the rape of a virtuous noblewoman, Lucretia, by the king’s son. Whatever the cause, Rome turned from a monarchy into a republic, a world derived from res publica, or “property of the people.”
41. After Pompey’s wife Julia (Caesar’s daughter) died in 54 B.C., and Crassus was killed in battle against Parthia (present-day Iran) the following year, the triumvirate was broken.
55. Will continue the narration of European Hisotory tomorrow.
102. Narration of European History will continue tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll
104. Byzantium, was re-founded as Constantinople, or Nova Roma ("New Rome"). The city of Rome itself had not served as the capital since the reign of Diocletian (284-305).
Byzantine Empire is generally considered to have ended after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
128. The narration of European Hisotory will be continued tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll
130. His empire based in modern France, the Low Countries and Germany expanded into modern Hungary, Italy, Bohemia, Lower Saxony and Spain.
141. Slavery in the early medieval period had mostly died out in western Europe by about the year 1000 AD, replaced by serfdom.
144. Will continue with the narration of European History tomorrow.
152. Bulgarian sovereignty was re-established with the anti-Byzantine uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs in 1185.
In what is known as the "great clearances", vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated.
165. Narration of European History will continue tomorrow.
187. The Late Middle Ages spanned the 14th and early 15th centuries. Around 1300, centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt.
13–14th centuries 32
208. The Early Modern period spans the centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution, roughly from 1500 to 1800, or from the discovery of the New World in 1492 to the French Revolution in 1789.
As such, the early modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism, serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church.
Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period.
Important political precedents were also set in this period. Niccolo Machiavelli's political writing in 'The Prince' influenced later absolutism and real-politik.
During this period, Spain experienced the greatest epoch of cultural splendor in its history.
Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery began.
224. We continue with the narration of European History tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll
252. Francis Bacon and other advocates of science tried to create unity in Europe by focusing on the unity in nature.
The new state power was contested by parliaments in other countries especially England.
256. The Iberian states (Spain and Portugal) were able to dominate New World (American) colonial activity in the 16th century.
Colonial expansion continued in the following centuries.
264. This expansion helped the economy of the countries owning them.
266. The European countries fought wars that were largely paid for by the money coming in from the colonies.
269. I will continue with the narration of European History tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Central and Eastern Europe was an arena of conflict for domination of the continent.
308. We will continue with the narration of the European History tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll.
310. Now we turn to the Age of Enlightenment. Ibrahim Muteferrika wrote as follows in his "Rational basis for the Politics of Nations".
334. European History will be continued tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll.
The American Revolution (1775–1783) was the first successful revolt of a colony against a European power.
361. European History will be continued tomorrow. @threadreaderapp Pl. unroll.
The narration of European History will be continued tomorrow.
381. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, from 1793 to 1815, caused 4 million deaths; 1.4 million were French deaths. Outside France the Revolution had a major impact. Its ideas became widespread.
389. It took control of the German areas on the left bank of the Rhine River and set up a puppet regime. It conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states.
Most of the new nations were abolished on the defeat of Napolean and returned to prewar owners in 1814.
Likewise in Switzerland the long-term impact of the French Revolution has been remarkable.
it created a Swiss citizenship, basis of our modern nationality, and the separation of powers, of which the old regime had no conception;
Power became centralized in Paris, with its strong bureaucracy and an army supplied by conscripting all young men.