#OriginofLife or #Abiogenesis 🔥🔥🔥

1/ Life is the condition that distinguishes plants & animals (including humans) from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity & continual change preceding death.
2/ Life functions thru th specialized chemistry of carbon & water & builds largely upon four key families of chemicals:
i) lipids (fatty cell walls),
ii) carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose),
iii) amino acids (protein metabolism), &
iv) nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA&RNA).
3/ #Abiogenesis is the natural process by which life & living systems arose from non-living elements, such as simple organic compounds.
4/ #Abiogenesis is studied thru a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry &biochemistry.
4/ #Abiogenesis aims 2 determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise 2 life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three.
5/ The transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but an #EvolutionaryProcess of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis & the emergence of cell membranes.
6/ Life as we know it originated roughly 3.5 to 4 billion years ago in the form of a #prebiotic ("before life") or #primordial soup of organic molecules that began to replicate themselves & pass along a genetic formula.
7/ Organic molecules are the molecules of life & are built around chains of carbon atoms that are often quite long.

There are 4 main groups of organic molecules that combine to build cells & their parts:
i) lipids,
ii) carbohydrates,
iii) amino acids, &
iv) nucleic acids.
8/ Th mixture of organic molecules with water under th atmosphere of th primitive Earth is referred as the prebiotic or primordial soup.

There, life originated & th first forms of life were able use th organic molecules 2 survive & reproduce.
9/ Today, all living organisms store & transmit hereditary information using two kinds of molecules: DNA & RNA. Each of these molecules is in turn composed of four kinds of subunits known as nucleotides.
10/ Using the #HeterotrophicOriginofLifeTheory or #PrimordialSoupTheory:
i) Early Earth had a chemically reducing atmosphere.
ii) This atmosphere, exposed 2 energy in various forms, produced simple organic compounds ("monomers").
10/ contd...

iii) These compounds accumulated in a "soup", which may hav been concentrated at various locations (shorelines, oceanic vents etc.).
iv) By further transformation, more complex organic polymers & ultimately life – developed in th primordial soup.
Note:
An #AbioticProcess refers 2 anything that occurs without th presence of life.
A #PrebioticProcess refers 2 something that happens in th atmospheric&chemical conditions that th primitive Earth had about 4.2 billion years ago &that preceded 2 th origin of life on th planet.
11/ Th sequences of nucleotides in particular lengths of DNA or RNA, known as genes, direct th construction of molecules (proteins), which in turn catalyze biochemical reactions, provide structural components 4organisms, &perform many of the other functions on which life depends.
12/ Proteins consist of chains of subunits known as amino acids. The sequence of nucleotides in DNA & RNA therefore determines the sequence of amino acids in proteins. This is a central mechanism in all of biology.
13/ An #EvolutionaryProcess involves a series of natural changes that cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the environment, and become extinct. All species or organisms have originated through the process of biological evolution.
14/ Evolution occurs when there is change in the genetic material - the chemical molecule, DNA - which is inherited from the parents, and especially in the proportions of different genes in a population.
15/ Genes represent the segments of DNA that provide the chemical code for producing proteins. Information contained in the DNA can change by a process known as mutation.
16/ The way particular genes are expressed, i.e., how they influence th body or behavior of an organism -- can also change. Genes affect how th body&behavior of an organism develop during its life &...
16/ contd...this is why genetically inherited characteristics can influence the likelihood of an organism’s survival & reproduction.
17/ Evolution does not change any single individual. Instead, it changes the inherited means of growth and development that typify a population (a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular habitat). Parents pass adaptive genetic changes 2 their offspring.
18/ Ultimately these changes become common throughout a population. As a result, th offspring inherit those genetic characteristics that enhance their chances of survival&ability 2 give birth, which may work well until th environment changes.
19/ Over time, genetic change can alter a species' overall way of life, eg what it eats, how it grows, &where it can live. Evolution took place as new genetic variations in early ancestor populations favored new abilities 2 adapt 2 environmental change &so altered th way of life.
20/ Every living creature has DNA, which has a lot of inherited information about how the body builds itself. Scientists can compare the DNA of two organisms & the more similar the DNA, the more closely related the organisms.
21/ The study of one type of evidence of evolution is called embryology, the study of embryos. An embryo is an unborn (or unhatched) animal or human young in its earliest phases.
22/ Embryos of many different kinds of animals:
mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc. look very similar & it is often difficult to tell them apart. Many traits of one type of animal appear in the embryo of another type of animal.
22/ For example, fish embryos&human embryos both have gill slits. In fish they develop into gills, but in humans they disappear before birth.
23/ This shows that the animals are similar and that they develop similarly, implying that they are related, have common ancestors and that they started out the same, gradually evolving different traits, but that the basic plan for a creature's beginning remains the same.

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More from @shingaiRndoro

Jun 26, 2021
1/ Without money but with a business idea, what % shareholding will you provide to your start-up financier?

A thread 🔥🔥🔥

Recently, I was approached by a young relative with a business idea. I assessed it & found that it had lucrative possibility but he had no funding for it.
2/ A business idea (innovative concept of a good/service, systems or methods) requires to be in a legally "tangible" form as a patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret.
3/ What did he want from me?
1. To critically assess his business idea as he knows I’m already in business.
2. To help him finance it myself or to look for someone to finance it, either as donors or shareholders.
Read 22 tweets
Mar 14, 2021
#RoadsCondition 🔥 🔥 🔥

1/ The central Gvt took away the responsibility to collect motor vehicle licenses. It goes to @zinaraZW which then centrally allocates to local authorities to construct, rehabilite & repair roads using an unknown formula.
2/ In terms of the Roads Act of 2001, ZINARA disburses funds to the Road Authorities based on four types of disbursements:
1. routine maintenance,
2. periodic maintenance,
3. emergency, and
4. special project fund.
3/ Road Authorities are categorised into:
1. Department of Roads (DoR) in the @MinistryofTID, responsible for trunk roads,
2. Urban Councils, for urban roads,
3. Rural District Councils, for rural roads, &
4. District Development Fund (DDF), responsible for rural roads.
Read 13 tweets
Mar 12, 2021
1/ This is an angry statement from an insecure PS of the @MoPSEZim.

In the absence of an academic calendar, ATS-affiliated private schools conducted private lessons using online learning since Jan.

The PS didnt acknowledge & appreciate that.

@taundoro @tim_ats @chiszafrica Image
2/ How do organised private lessons affect the PS’ authority over the private schools?

How does conducting private lessons using e-learning & allowing the private schools to have a temporary calendar for 2021 affect the education system?

Who is disadvantaged?
3/ Online private lessons can be organised between:
1. a teacher with a learner,
2. a teacher with a group of learners,
3. a school for the teachers, or
4. an association or grouping of schools for their teachers to conduct the lessons.

To whose advantage is this? Learners!
Read 8 tweets
Mar 11, 2021
This story was written to scandalise private schools that have been conducting online lessons since January.

I hope the ministry won’t micromanage the issue as it has been doing.

chronicle.co.zw/private-school… @HeraldZimbabwe @ChronicleZim @taundoro @MoPSEZim @chiszafrica @nqotshili
It wasn’t wrong that private secondary schools opened in January for lessons thru online learning using Google Classroom. To consider that as wrong, is micromanaging pvt schools.

Since they opened in January, then they shld be allowed to have a 2021 Temporary Academic Calendar.
Since Monday, the learners in ATS-affiliated private secondary schools are sitting for their end of term exams & everything is going on well without incident or problem.
Read 4 tweets
Jul 29, 2020
#AntiDollarisation Big Thread 🔥 💡

#Dollarisation: The removal of a ventilator from an economy in ICU

1/ An ailing, sick or troubled economy needs medication of policy & actions.

Does this include abandoning a domestic currency & then dollarise?

What is #dollarisation?
2/ By definition, dollarization is "when the USD is used in addition to or in place of the domestic currency of another country. It usually happens when a country’s own currency loses its usefulness as a medium of exchange, due to hyperinflation or instability." - Investopedia.
3/ Its further explained that "dollarization usually occurs in developing countries with a weak central monetary authority or an unstable economic environment. It can occur as an official monetary policy or as a de facto market process."
Read 43 tweets
Jul 24, 2020
1. There has been stability of the local currency.
2. Big corporates are getting FX from the FX auction market & SMEs are buying from banks.
3. This means by displaying the dual prices, customers can see what rate is being used.

I will share a sad experience of mine below.
Went 2 an SME Indian-owned shop 4 some items. Pricing was dual but at a rate of 120 if it’s in LX. I told him that the rate was 105.He said I shld go&buy the forex&come back 2 pay in USDs.

I did that using Ecocash& then went back into the shop&bought the goods.

This is WRONG!
Read 4 tweets

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