, 49 tweets, 46 min read
The Chams are an Austronesian people indigenous to what was previously the kingdom of Champa, now in modern day south Vietnam. They currently follow 3 religions, Hinduism, Sunni Shafi'i Islam & a third religion mixing the other two together. They were conquered by Vietnam.
Champa along with Vietnam was under the rule of Han dynasty China after China expanded & conquered territories in south China & Indochina. The official Khu Liên (Qū Lián) led Chams to revolt against China in 192 & established the independent Cham kingdom of Lâm Ấp (Linyi).
The Chams were then Indianized by their neighbor Funan. China & #Champa then fought each other several times over the next 800 years as they shared a border. China invaded Champa in the Sui dynasty in 605 & sacked the Cham capital before withdrawing after disease struck the army.
After #Vietnam became independent in 968, #China no longer had a border with #Champa & Vietnam became Champa's enemy instead. Champa then allied with China against Vietnam as the #Vietnamese conquered Champa in invasions over the next 800 years & sacked the Cham capitals to 1832.
The Cham Sunni #Muslims and #Hindus rebelled against #Vietnamese rule after the conquests and during the Vietnam war they formed the "Front pour la libération du Champa" to fight against the Vietnamese for an independent Champa. They were aided by Cambodia against the Vietnamese.
#Vietnam followed the Chinese model of military run state farms (屯田) to use in it's colonization of Champa. Vietnamese soldier colonists on the military farms resettled every province of Champa as they gradually conquered the region until Chams were a minority in all the land.
Many #Cham refugees, mostly #Sunni #Muslims, fled the #Vietnamese invasions to #Cambodia, #Thailand and #Hainan island in #China. The Cham descendants still live in those regions today but they are not native to those places and are only native to Champa which Vietnam conquered.
The Cambodians who supported the Cham Sunnis & Hindus against Vietnam in the Vietnam war also wanted to recover the lost territories of Lower Cambodia (Kampuchea Krom) which Vietnam had invaded & conquered from Cambodia. They intended reconquest of all of Lower Cambodia & Champa.
A Champa provisional republic was planned in Cambodia & #Chams in the #Front_pour_la_Libération_du Champa fought on the battlefield alongside #Khmers from the #Front_de_Libération_du_Kampuchea_Krom & #Degars from the #Front_de_Liberation_des_Hauts_Plateaux against the Vietnamese.
These plans which were formulated by Lon Nol ended when Lon Nol was defeated by Communists led by Pol Pol.
On the topic of the Degar, this film is about a Degar family.

This is the third hybrid Hindu-Sunni Muslim religion called Bani Islam followed by Cham with their own version of Ramadan. Hinduism, Bani Islam and Shafi'i Sunni Islam are the three religions followed by the Cham.

The indigenous people of Hainan are the Hlai, and the indigenous people of Guangxi and northern Vietnam's border provinces of Cao Bang are the Zhuang-Nung-Tay Tai-Kadai people. The Kinh people come from the Red River delta and then expanded north and south.
Nùng Trí Cao (Nong Zhigao) was a #Zhuang-#Nung leader who revolted both against Vietnam in #Cao_Bằng and against China in #Guangdong nearly 1,000 years ago. He established an independent Nung kingdom before his rebellion was put down by #Vietnam and #China.
This is the Cham view of the struggle over South China sea islands.

nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/6/14…
"But the dispute between Vietnam and China is grabbing the most attention. Both have referred to historical ties with the islands, in China's case dating to the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. to A.D. 220), to support their claims in the region.
Meanwhile, in Vietnam the roughly 160,000 members of the Cham ethnic minority, whose forebears dominated the South China Sea for more than a millennium, are quietly on the sidelines of the escalating conflict."
"Two centuries after their then-diminished dominion ended violently at the hands of Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mang, the Cham remain wary of engaging in such disputes, the current version of which is a reminder of the symbolic and economic importance of the South China Sea and of
the Cham culture that once was enriched by trade across it."
"Several shipwrecks are evidence of trade between Champa and the Philippines via the Spratly Islands. One vessel—the Pandanan wreck, found off the Philippine island of Palawan—is believed to have left the Champa coast sometime between 1450 and 1470, carrying green-glazed ceramics
made in the Cham kingdom of Vijaya."
"In 1997 Philippine authorities salvaged a centuries-old vessel off Thitu Island in the Spratlys containing about a thousand granite carvings that appear to have been taken from unknown Champa sites."
"The Cham took up Hinduism early, likely converted by Indian merchants, and blended it with their traditional beliefs. Hindu Cham are called Balamon.

Before the end of the first millennium, Muslim traders introduced Islam, and Muslim Cham became known as Bani."
"As early as 986, Chinese records refer to communities on the island of Hainan that were made up of Cham Muslims, whose descendants today are Utsuls.

In addition to their respective Muslim and Hindu practices, Balamon and Bani both worship ancestors, kings, and Cham deities.
Bani, and some Balamon, observe a variation of Ramadan called Ramawan.
Ravages of War

The Champa empire was the chief rival of the Khmer Empire, in Cambodia, and Dai Viet, an early Vietnamese kingdom to the north. .
Champa's conflicts with Dai Viet seem to have started at the end of the tenth century, as the Vietnamese pushed south to the Cham kingdom of Vijaya (today's Quy Nhon).

Bas reliefs in a temple at Angkor depict an epic naval battle between the Khmer and Champa in the 12th century.
The Cham navy was unrivaled, but on land the Cham suffered many costly defeats.

Territorial wrangling continued until 1471, when Vijaya was finally captured, and by the mid-1600s the Champa empire had been reduced to its southern kingdom of Panduranga (now Ninh Thuan
and Binh Thuan Provinces, where most of Vietnam's Cham descendants live today). By then, a Cham diaspora had spread to Cambodia, Hainan, the Philippines and Malaysia.
In 1832, Emperor Minh Mang set out to crush the last vestiges of Cham autonomy and stamp out the culture, burning Cham villages and farmland and destroying ancient temples. Many Cham fled to Cambodia, where their descendants number in the hundreds of thousands today.
A Rich but Beleaguered Culture

Physical evidence of Cham culture in Vietnam is disappearing. In Binh Thuan Province and elsewhere, Cham temple sites and ancient tombs have been overrun by paddies, dragonfruit plantations, and shrimp farms. In Quang Ngai Province, temple sites
have been damaged or destroyed by gravel quarrying.

The Vietnamese continue to build Buddhist temples atop the ruins of Cham religious sites and to use bricks from Cham citadels to build their houses.
Hill tribes relocated from the far north of Vietnam now live in Champa's last capital, Song Luy, brought down during Minh Mang's purge. There's no mention of Song Luy in Vietnamese history books, and it's ignored in official tourism materials, despite its proximity to the
country's largest resort, in Mui Ne.

Hoi An is Vietnam's best known ancient port town. Popular histories and today's tourist brochures, however, neglect to mention its centuries-old Cham roots.
Vietnamese policies to southern ethnic minorities in the 19th century.

#Champa #Chams #Cham #Hindus #Hindu #Hinduism #Muslims #Muslim #islam #Vietnam #Vietnamese #Viet #Khmer #Kampuchea #Cambodia #Cambodian
Vietnamese policies to southern ethnic minorities in the 19th century before French rule.

#Champa #Chams #Cham #Hindus #Hindu #Hinduism #Muslims #Muslim #islam #Vietnam #Vietnamese #Viet #Khmer #Kampuchea #Cambodia #Cambodian
Vietnamese policies to southern ethnic minorities in the early 19th century before French rule.

#Champa #Chams #Cham #Hindus #Hindu #Hinduism #Muslims #Muslim #islam #Vietnam #Vietnamese #Viet #Khmer #Kampuchea #Cambodia #Cambodian
19th century Vietnamese saw themselves as the heir to Han civilization & Confucian orthodoxy & appropriated Han identity & China.
web.archive.org/web/2014031817…
web.archive.org/web/2007071523…
Vietnam forced Indic civilization ethnic minorities like Khmer and Cham to assimilate to Han culture originating from China.


Nungz Ciqgaoh called his #kingdom South Heaven 南天 and later Big South or Great South 大南. To be neutral, he should be referred primarily by the #Zhuang-#Nung pronunciation of his name, Nungz Ciqgaoh, not #Vietnamese Nùng Trí Cao or #Chinese Nong Zhigao.
The Degar and Khmer Krom minorities are supported by the Radical Party of Italy.


I am not aware if the Radical Party supports the Cham but cannot find anything by them on Champa.


#Sunni #Muslim #Cham paratrooper #General #Hajji Les Kosem used the name of Cham #Hindu goddess Po Nagar as his alias when he led Front pour la libération du #Champa. Another Cham adopted the alias Po Dharma.
champaka.info/index.php?opti…
indomemoires.hypotheses.org/6464
Pictures of Degar fighters, a Front unifié de lutte des races opprimées flag and of #Cham historian and former #Front_pour_la_libération_du_Champa fighter Po Dharma. He is the foremost advocate and speaker on Champa's history & role of Chams & other minorities in the Vietnam war.
General Hajji Les Kosem was supposed to be the provisional President of the Champa republic.
Cham Hindus were fed beef and Cham Muslims were fed pork under coercion by Vietnamese invaders after the Vietnamese invasion of the last part of independent Champa in 1832.

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