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In 1259 AD, ๐˜”๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ฌ Sultans took over the Egyptian throne from the ๐˜ˆ๐˜บ๐˜บ๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ด. Mamluks stretched from #Egypt to #Delhi. Mamluks were a peculiar people. #Mamluk sultanate was a self-perpetuating military oligarchy that lasted for more than 260 years.
In 1206, Qutb ud-din Aibak, a Mamluk Turkic general of Central Asian descent established the Slave dynasty in Delhi Sultanate. The name 'slave' fell for a terrible yet grudgingly admirable reason. Mamluks purchased youths from Turkic tribes. They were given rigorous training.
They were trained in Islam, military skills, horsemanship and archery, then freed to become soldiers in cavalry regiments. Mamluk system banned sons of soldiers to become soldiers.
Twelve military schools were established with 1200 capacity each, imparting rigorous discipline.
Military discipline resulted in Cairo becoming "the metropolis of the universe, garden of the world" in words of ๐˜๐˜ฃ๐˜ฏ ๐˜’๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ, a grand judge who served in Cairo for 24 years.

This garden, however, was not meant to be. By end of 14th c. doom came riding on the plague.
In 1453, #Ottoman sultan Mehmed II captured the old Byzantine city of Constantinople, renamed it #Istanbul and proclaimed it his imperial capital.
In June 1517, Ottomans invaded #Egypt from the Levant. "The empire must be one", he declared, "with one faith and one sovereignty."
#Ottomans like #Mamluks relied on slave armies whose loyalty remained unquestioned. Young christian boys were captured, converted to Islam and trained in elite Janissary infantry or as bureaucrats. Mamluks were wielding swords against muskets. They were thoroughly trounced.
The last Mamluk sultan, Tumanbay was hanged before a horrified crowd. Egypt was reduced to a colonial province. Mamluks & Ottomans both spoke Turkish, were bureaucratic states who observed Islamic law.

Principal aim was also same -
1. Enforce law and order
2. Maximum taxation.
Ottomans clashed with Christians for control of coastal towns in North Africa. Spain had captured these towns earlier using it's ๐˜ˆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ข. Resistance resulted in anarchy. Legends of pirate Barbarossa and treasures of Timbuktu spread far and wide.

PS: #Google Aruj and Hizir
Slavery based system costed in human lives. Between 1530 and 1780, atleast a million #European captives were enslaved on the Barbary coast. Some #slaves were ransomed, some converted, thousands died from disease and ill-treatment. Only escape was to pay Jizyah or convert.
Between 1550 and 1730, the white slave population in port city of Algiers stood at 25,000, sometimes doubling. With so much labour, Algiers blossomed into one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Tunis and Tripoli held about 7500 Christian captives over the same period.
#Plague that descended on Egypt in mid-14th c. was different from it's European branch. Egypt was hit with recurring plagues 28 times within 160 years. This sealed the fate of #Egyptian civilization. It weakened Egypt to the point of #Ottoman takeover. Rats doomed a civilization.
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