Mani was the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of late antiquity which was once widespread but is now extinct.
In the early years of Islam, the Muslims were persecuted & tortured by the ruling families of Mecca, slowly at
The story of the Companions of the Cave implies implicit guidance for the believers.
Next, there is the story of Al-Khidr (The Teacher of Arabia) and Moses pbuh in a clear and delicate reference to the vicissitudes of life. Future circumstances of
conditions, they might be categorically the opposite. In other words, the war waged against the Muslims would in the future assume a different turn, and
the tyrannous oppressors would one day come to suffer & be subjected to
Furthermore, there is the story of Dhul-Qarnain (The Two Horned One), the powerful ruler of
the west and east.
Surah Az-Zumar(Chapter 39 —The Crowds) was then revealed pointing directly to migration and stating that the earth
and evil: "Good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world, and
Allah's earth is spacious (so if you cannot worship Allah at a place, then go to another)! Only those
The Prophet pbuh had already known that Ashamah Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), was a fair ruler who would not wrong any of his subordinates, so he permitted some of his followers to seek asylum
women left for Abyssinia. Among the emigrants were Uthman bin Affan and his wife Ruqaiyah (the daughter of the Prophet pbuh)
With respect to these two emigrants, the Prophet pbuh said:
They sneaked out of Makkah under the heavy curtain of a dark night&headed for the sea where two boats happened to be sailing for Abyssinia, their destination. News of their intended departure
believers had already left Shuaibah Port towards their secure haven where they were received warmly and accorded due hospitality.
In Ramadan of the same year, the Prophet pbuh went into the
(Chapter 41 — The Star). The awe-inspiring Words of Allah descended unawares upon them and they immediately got stunned by them.
been the favorite trick of those people who wished to dishonor
Revelation, not only not to listen to it themselves but also to talk loudly and
insolently when it was being read, so that even
in fact, they were piling up misery for themselves, for God's Voice can never be silenced, "And those who disbelieve say:
When the unspeakably fascinating Words of Allah came into direct contact with their hearts, they were entranced & got oblivious of the
materialistic world around them and
reached the stormy heart-beating ending:
"So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him
The idolaters, unconsciously & with full compliance,
perceived that Allah's Words had conquered
them severely; consequently they began to fabricate lies & calumniate the Prophet pbuh, alleging that
veneration and ascribed to them the power of desirable intercession. All of these were desperate attempts made to establish an excusable justification for their prostrating themselves with the Prophet pbuh on that day. Of
course, this foolish
their life-consecrated practice of telling lies & plot hatching. News of this incident was misreported to the Muslim emigrants in Abyssinia. They were informed that the whole of Quraish had
embraced Islam so they made their way
Makkah, the reality of the situation was discovered. Some of them returned
to Abyssinia, others sneaked secretly into the city or went in
that transpired to the Makkans about the good hospitality & warm
welcome that the Muslims were accorded in Abyssinia, the
polytheists got terribly indignant & started to mete out severer & more
Messenger of Allah pbuh deemed it imperative to permit the helpless creatures to seek asylum in Abyssinia for the second time. Migration this time was not as easy as it was the previous time, for Quraish was on the alert to
eighty-three, men and nineteen or, in some versions, eighteen women.
Quraish could not tolerate the prospect of a secure haven available for the Muslims in Abyssinia, so they despatched two staunch
envoys to demand their extradition. They were Amr bin Al- As &Abdullah bin AbiRabia-before embracingIslam.
them valuable gifts to the king & his clergy, & had been able to win some of the courtiers over to their side. The pagan envoys claimed that the
Muslim refugees should be expelled from Abyssinia and made over to them, on the ground that they had abandoned the
The king summoned the Muslims to the court and asked them to explain the teachings of their religion.
The Muslim emigrants had decided to tell the whole truth
Ja'far bin Abi Talib stood up and addressed the king in the following words:
"O King! we were plunged in the depth of ignorance and barbarism; we adored idols, we lived in unchastity, ate dead bodies, committed great sins, severed family relations,
neighborhood were neglected; we knew no law but that of the strong, the strong among us abused the weak. We were like that until God sent from among us a Prophet who was known for
Hence, we believed in him and in God's message to him. We worshipped God alone. We rejected that which we used to associate with Him as His partners. We consider unlawful what he has
persecuted us in order to make us forsake the worship of One God & return to the worship of idols and other abominations. They want us to consider lawful the evil
we hope that we would be treated fairly while we are with you, O King!"
Muslims to recite some of Allah's Revelation. Ja'far recited the opening
verses of Surah Maryam (Chapter 19 —Mary) wherein is told the story of
the birth of Jesus Christ, down to the account of Mary having
been fed with the food miraculously.
(The angel) said: “I am only a messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son.” She said: “How can I have a son, when no man has touched me, nor am I unchaste?” He said: “So it will be, your Lord said:
Thereupon the king, along with
radiated from the same source."
Turning to the crest-fallen envoys of
Quraish, he said, "I am afraid, I cannot give you back these refugees.
This did not please/satisfy the Meccans. Their mission was to discredit the Muslims and thus the religion of Islam. The Meccans moved forward with another plan to destroy the fledgling religion, in a pathetic attempt
"We speak about Jesus as we have been taught by our prophet pbuh; that is, he is the servant of God, His
Messenger, His spirit and His Word breathed into the Virgin Mary."
On hearing this, the King at once remarked
your master." Then turning to the frowning envoys who
got angry, he said: "You may fret and fume as you like but Jesus is nothing more than what Jafar has said about him."
brought with them and sent them away. The result was that the Meccans left Ethiopia in disgrace, and the Muslims lived in Abyssinia unmolested in peace & security for a number
grudge they nursed against the Muslims would not operate but within their realm of Makkah.
From Muhammad, the Messenger of God, to Negus, the King of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance.
Salutations, I entertain Allah’s praise, there is no god
but He, the Sovereign,
of peace, the Guardian of faith, the Preserver of safety. I bear witness that Jesus, the son of Mary, is the spirit of God and
His Word which He cast into Mary, the virgin, the good, the
pure, so that she conceived Jesus.
spirit and His breathing as He created Adam by His Hand. I
call you to God Alone with no associate and to His obedience
and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I
am the Messenger of God. I invite you & your men to God,
"In the Name of God, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Negus Ashama to Muhammad, the Messenger of God.
blessing from Allah beside Whom there is no god. I have
received your letter in which you have mentioned about Jesus
and by the Lord of heaven and earth, Jesus is not more than
what you say. We fully acknowledge that with
been sent to us and we have entertained your cousin and his
companions. I bear witness that you are the Messenger of
Allah, true and confirming (those who have gone before you), I
pledge to you through your cousin and surrender myself
through him to the
None of the other kings believed except for the first Negus, the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and the king of Ammaan and his brother.
Heraclius would have become Muslim, were it not that he feared what his people would do to him.
It is narrated in al-Bukhaari and Muslim, in the hadeeth referred to above, that when Heraclius asked Abu Sufyaan about the attributes of
It was narrated that he said: “I know that (i.e., what they said about the Prophet pbuh) is
And it was also narrated that he said: “By Allah, I know that he is a Prophet who has been sent, but I fear the Byzantines and what they will do to me.
Ibn al-Qayyim mentions in Zaad al-Ma’aad (3/694) that when Heraclius heard news of the Negus becoming Muslim, he said: “By Allaah, were it not for the sake of holding on to my kingdom, I would have done what he has done.”
According to Sahih Muslim, the Prophet pbuh had asked Najashi to send Jafar and his companions, the emigrants to Abyssinia (Ethiopia),