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Weil inzwischen sogar Gerichtsurteile @hwieduwilt mit Verweis auf #Filterblasen gefällt werden, ein kleiner Überblick über wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zu deren (Nicht-)Existenz. 1/
Idee in 1970ern angedacht, 1995 von @nnegroponte als „dailyme“ popularisiert, wg. @elipariser Buch „Filterbubble“ 2011 dann ein Jahrzehnt Internetdebatte beherrscht. Begriff vage definiert, überlappt mit Echokammer, Polarisierung, Fragmentierung. Was ist dran? Langer Thread 2/
"Scientific evidence for the existence of filter bubbles is scant and riddled with methodological challenges“ @judith_moeller 3/
"We find no evidence that the Internet is becoming more segregated over time" 2011 Jesse Shapiro
"our findings suggest that there is no echo chamber in political communication on Facebook in Germany“ und wenn, dann nur "on the margins of the political spectrum instead of the mainstream“ 2019 @WolfSchuenemann
"Insgesamt kommt dieser Überblick zu dem Schluss, dass die ... geäußerte Furcht vor einer gesamtgesellschaftlichen Fragmentierung durch digitale Medien und einer damit verbundenen politischen Polarisierung empirisch nicht unterstützt wird“ 2019 6/
“at present there is little empirical evidence that warrants any worries about filter bubbles” Frederik J. Zuiderveen Borgesius et al 2016 u.a. @nhelberger @judith_moeller
aber s. Gegenstimmen: und 8/
"We find no support for the idea that online audiences are more fragmented than offline audiences, countering fears associated with audience segmentation and filter bubbles" @rasmus_kleis & Richard Fletcher 2017 9/
(in some cases online news is "signifcantly less fragmented“ than offline news; ähnlich: 10/
Am Beispiel von Google News etwa: "können wir die klare Schlussfolgerung ziehen, dass sich die allermeisten Suchergebnislisten für alle Suchbegriffe hinreichend überlappen und wir … 11/
die algorithmenbasierte Bildung und Verhärtung von isolierenden Filterblasen verneinen können“ 2018 @NetworkTobi Michael Gamer @nettwerkerin 12/
Einige fürchten sogar, that Google News provides not enough personalisation, and instead directs its users predominantly to the same four or five prominent mainstream media news sources 13/
"Most studies of news use on social media have failed to find evidence of echo chambers and/or 'filter bubbles‘... Some studies even find evidence that it increases the likelihood of exposure to opposing views“ 14/
social media users generally encounter a greater diversity of news sources than non-users do 15/
"Using a nationally representative survey of adult internet users in the United Kingdom (N=2000), we find that those who are interested in politics and those with diverse media diets tend to avoid echo chambers" 2018 @lizdubois 16/
"in the USA, use of online media decreases support for right-wing populism"
“exposure to highly partisan political information ... does not come at the expense of contact with other viewpoints”
In manchen Ländern gibt es mehr Polarisierung: US, Canada, NZ und UK (seit 2000). Aber: „In five other countries—Australia, Britain, Norway, Sweden, and (West) Germany—polarization fell“; largest decline in D; ... 19/
... and: "internet penetration appears to have risen faster in countries with falling polarization" 2019 @levi_boxell @MattGentzkow Jesse Shapiro 20/
Bei wem ist in USA Polarisierung am stärksten gestiegen? "We find that polarization has increased the most among the groups least likely to use the Internet and social media“ @levi_boxell @MattGentzkow Jesse Shapiro 21/
"almost all of the polarization happens demographically in populations that use the Internet and social media less, rather than more“ @YochaiBenkler 22/
Denn: Social Media erzeugen die Polarisierung nicht, sondern machen die offline vorhandene nur sichtbar (high-powered Studie:
Überhaupt: Junge, online-affine User nutzen mehr unterschiedliche News-Quellen als Alte 24/
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