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Conflict & Anti-Colonialism in the 20th Century:

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Indonesia:
- 17th Century "Dutch East Indes"
- 1927: Ahkmed Sukarno established the PNI, Indonesian Nationalist Party.
- 1942-47: Japanese conquest and subsequent occupation.
- 17th August 1945: An Independent Indonesian Republic was proclaimed in Jakarta.
Between 1945 and 1949 the Dutch military led an effort to re-establish Imperial control over Indonesia.

This led to international condemnation which forced the Dutch to recognize Indonesian Independence in December, 1949.
The Malayan Emergency:
- Malayan rubber and tin were regarded as vital to British post-war economic recovery.
- 1948: a communist uprising (dominated by ethnic Chinese) began and British authorities declared a state of emergency.
- 1950-51: 8,000 insurgents were conducting 500 attacks a month.
- British forces waged a successful counterinsurgency campaign and the insurgency petered out in the late-1950s.
- Malaya remained under British control until independence as the federation of Malaysia in 1963.
French Indo-China:
- Indo-China was colonized by the French between 1860 and 1893.
- The Viet Minh (Vietnam Independence League) established in 1941.
- September 1945: Viet Minh proclaimed an independent Vietnamese Republic.
-1946-54: French efforts to re-establish Imperial control be force.
- Loas and Cambodia became independent in 1953.
- 1954: Decisive defeat for the French at Dien Bien Phu.
- 1954: Geneva Conference partitioned Vietnam into a communist-controlled North and a US & French backed capitalist South.
French Algeria:
- 1848: Algeria was declared to be an integral part of metropolitan France.
- By the 20th century Algeria was home to a large French settle population, many of whom had been born in North Africa.
- 1954-62: War between Algerian Liberation Movement (FLN) and French authorities.
- Charles de Gaulla became President of France in 1958 and began negotiations with the FLN in 1961.
- Organisation de I'armee secrete (OAS): "L'Algrie est Francaiset le restera."
- 3 July 1961: Proclamation of Algerian Independence and FLN founder, Ben Bella, became President.
The Story of Palestine:
- Palestine was established as a British mandate after World War 1.
- Arab uprising against British rule in 1920s and 1930s.
- Jewish paramilitary groups (the Haganah, Stern Gang and Irgun) were all fighting British troops in Palestine after 1945.
- By the end of 1947, 127 British troops had died and the UN voted to partition Palestine into 2 states, Palestine and Israel.
- 14th May 1948: "On this day that sees the end of the British mandate and in virtue of the natural and historic right of the Jewish people and in...
accordance with the UN resolution we proclaim the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine" (David Ben-Gurion).
Anglo- Egyptian Conflict post-1945:
- 1945: 80,000 British troops were stationed in the Suez Canal Zone - a vital British strategic interest.
- Egyptians saw it as a symbol of foreign occupation and in 1951 Egypt unilaterally renounced the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty.
- 1951-52: Guerrilla war between Egypt and British troops in Canal Zone.
- 25th January 1952: British troops killed 50 Egyptian policemen in the Canal Zone.
- 26th January 1952: 26 people died during major riots across Cairo.
- The July 1952 Revolution in Egypt swept the old regime away and a nationalist military government came to power.

Enter the Suez Crisis:
- 26th July 1956: Egypt's President Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal Company.
- British Prime Minister, Anthony Eden, quickly decided that Nasser had to be forced to back down.
- August: Proposals for International control of the Canal are rejected by Nasser.
- October: Diplomatic progress is made at the United Nations.
- 22-24th October: Secret meetings are held between British, French and Israeli officials which resulted in a plan for an Israeli attack of Egypt as an excuse for Anglo-French military intervention.
- 29th October: Israel invaded Egypt.
- 31st October: Anglo-French bombing commences.
- 5th November: Anglo-French air and seaborne assault on Port Said.
- The Soviet Union threatened 'rocket attacks' against Britain, France, and Israel.
- The United States imposed economic and diplomatic sanctions against Britain and France.
- 7th November: Britain accepts a humiliating ceasefire with Nasser still in control of the Canal. In total 16 British soldiers died; 1,600 Egyptians were killed.
Consequences of the Suez Crisis:
- Suez has been mythologized as the symbolic moment in British Empires decline and the 'end of empire'.
- Britain and France suffered a humiliating defeat on a global stage.
- Eden resigned on 9th January 1957.
- Spectacular political victory turned Nasser into an Arab hero.
- The United States displaced Britain as the dominant Western power in the Middle East.
The Cyprus Emergency:
- Cyprus became a British Crown Colony after World War 1.
- Demands for a Union of Greece and Cyprus, Enosis, were rejected by Britain in 1951 and 1953.
- 1st April 1955: EOKA, 'National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters' began a 4 year insurgency.
- Between 1956 and 1959, 371 British soldiers were killed in Cyprus by the EOKA.
- 16th August 1960: Cyprus became an independent republic within the Commonwealth.
Kenya and the Mau Mau:

- 1920: the British East African Protectorate became the Crown Colony of Kenya.
- 1952: a Kikuyu secret society, the Mau Mau, began a campaign of violent attacks against white farmers; 68 Europeans were killed between 1952 and 1954.
- 1959: Revelations about the abuse of killings of Kenyan Mau Mau suspects at the Hola Detention Camp.
- 11,000 Kenyan's died during a state of emergency which remained in place until 1960.
- Kenya became independent in 1963.
Northern Ireland and the Troubles:

- 1921: Ireland is partitioned. 6 Northern counties of Ulster remain under British control.
- 1968: Start of a Catholic-nationalist civil rights campaign.
- January 1970: Emergency of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, (PIRA).
- "The Troubles": a triangular conflict fought out over the 1970s till the 1990s between i. the British Army, ii. Republican paramilitaries, and iii. Loyalist paramilitaries.
- Over 3,000 dead before the successful negotiation of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.
The Falklands Conflict:

- The Falkland Islands were and remain a source of tension between Britain and Argentina, since the 1830s in fact.
- 2-3rd April 1982: Argentina invaded and occupied the Falklands
- Britain dispatched a task force consisting of 30 ships and 6,000 troops to retake the Island.
- 25th April: South Georgia was recaptured.
- 21st May: Marks the beginning of the main British campaign to recapture the Islands.
- 14th June: Argentine surrender.
- 250 British and 650 Argentine deaths.
- The conflict was presented by Margaret Thatcher's government as a reassertion of British greatness after years of Imperial decline.
A Different Kind of Empire, the Soviet Union:

- The successor state to the old Tsarist Russian Empire.
- Of the nations which comprised the fmr Russian Empire, only Finland remained independent during the Cold War.
- Uprisings against Soviet control were brutally repressed in Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968).
- Should historians regard the collapse of the Soviet Union after 1989 as a form of decolonization?
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