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IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS AND LESSER r KNOWN EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE WORLD FOREVER...

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#1

FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-94)

It is not possible to overstate the importance of the French Revolution to world history. Not only did it shape the entire modern world as we know it and pave the way for capitalism to conquer feudalism, it set the stage for
revolutionary uprisings and changes in all parts of the globe. The period of radical social and political upheaval during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars that followed had a lasting impact not just on France or Europe, but the entire planet. It will always be...
remembered as the event that ended feudalism and whose shockwaves led to a total transformation of social structures in every country.
After the French treasury was drained (exacerbated by bankrolling and supplying the American Revolution), it created much misery and hunger,
which led to anger against the monarchy. Images of the revolution, such as the Storming of the Bastille, the guillotine, and the gigantic personality of Robespierre, are now iconic. The French Revolution introduced the concept of the republic to the world, and Revolutionary .
France soon had to fight for its life in wars against all of Europe. It laid the basis for Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup and the wars that followed, which spanned every continent and introduced the modern concept of the corps system for the military (replacing hired armies), and the
Napoleonic Code,.

By its mere existence and the worldwide historical and social transformations it caused, the French Revolution can easily be considered the most monumental historical event of the modern era, and , the defining historical event that changed the world forever
#2

LITTLE ROCK NINE

In September 1957, a group of nine brave Black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, enrolled in an all-White school. There was so much protest that 1,200 soldiers had to escort them for their first class.
The Little Rock Nine referred to a group of nine African-American students who enrolled in the Little Rock Central High School. The year was 1957. During that time, most of the schools in America practiced segregation laws in which Black students were not allowed to attend
all-White schools. The Supreme Court had passed a law in 1954 that asked all schools to abolish segregation. The Little Rock Central High School agreed to comply with the law and implemented the registration of Black students in 1957.
There were many protests when the news of nine Black students being admitted to the all-White school got out. Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to physically block the students from entering the school campus. One of the nine students, Elizabeth Eckford,
recalled later, “They moved closer and closer. … Somebody started yelling. … I tried to see a friendly face somewhere in the crowd—someone who maybe could help. I looked into the face of an old woman and it seemed a kind face, but when I looked at her again, she spat on me.”
The crowd became so hostile towards the young students that President Eisenhower had to send federal troops for their security. One thousand two hundred soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army were ordered to accompany the nine students. Amidst verbal
and physical abuse, the nine made their way into the school towards the end of September 1957.

Even though the Little Rock Nine made their way into the school on 25th September, they had to suffer the abuse of their White counterparts throughout their school years.
But they had the courage to go back every day. In 1999, each of the nine students was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by the then US President Bill Clinton.
#3

ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FERDINAND II (1914)

Historians now say that all roads in the twentieth century lead to World War I (1914-1918), which was caused by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, by Yugoslav nationalist .
Gavrilo Princip in June, 1914. By August of that year, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany declared war on France and Russia, and Britain declared war on Germany, starting a chain reaction of events that eventually involved all the great powers of the time.
The Great War was the first time modern lethal weapons were used in conventional warfare, including chemical weapons and tanks. Over 9 million people were killed and whole empires, like that of Russia, Germany, the Ottomans, and Austria, were dismantled. World War II’s origins
can be traced back to the tenuous peace forged after WWI, known at the time as the Great War. No one could imagine anything worse until the world had to face WWII a few decades later.
#4

In the first Olympics of 1904, the men’s marathon first place finisher completed the race in a car and was disqualified. The second place finisher was carried to the finish line by his trainers, and the fourth finisher took a detour to eat during the race.
The men’s marathon in the 1904 Olympic Games might have been one of the strangest races in history. It was more of a comedy show than a serious event. Only a few of the runners in the marathon had previous experience. The other participants were “oddities.” There were 10 Greeks
who had never run a marathon, two belonged to the Tsuana tribe of South Africa and arrived barefoot to the race, and one was a Cuban mailman who wore street clothing to the race.

That was not all. The first to complete the race was American runner Fred Lorz. Apparently, Lorz had
dropped out of the race after nine miles and then hitch-hiked in a car. When the car broke down at the 19th mile, he jogged to the finish line. He was banned from the competition for life.
The second to arrive, and the champion, was Thomas Hicks. Ten miles from the finish line,
he almost gave up but his trainers urged him to continue. He was given several doses of strychnine, a common rat poison, to help get him to the end of the race. When he reached the stadium, his trainers and supporters who carried him to the finish line! Even though he got the
gold medal that time, he never ran professionally again.

Andarín Carvajal, a Cuban postman, ran the race in street clothes. He had not eaten in 40 hours, He ate some rotten apples that gave him stomach cramps. Despite falling ill, he managed to finish in the fourth place!
#5

COLONIALISM (16TH-20TH CENTURY)

The historical effects of the colonial period stretch across centuries, and across all the continents of the world. From the 16th century onward, several European powers set up colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
The Spanish and Portuguese were first global empires, followed closely by the British, French, Dutch, and Russian empires, and eventually by Belgium, Germany, and Italy. The age of colonialism resulted in the division of the world between them and the exploitation of countries in
the third world.

On many continents, colonialism caused changes in culture, language, society, and economics; it also caused the deaths of millions as European nations brutalized the natives, mostly through private enterprises with the blessings of their monarchs for their “
civilizing” missions. Anti-colonialist movements picked up steam after the two world wars, and many of these countries would gain their independence. But the colonial period didn’t officially end until Portugal transferred Macau to China in 1999.
#6

THE WAR EFFECT

During the WWII, French women having babies with German soldiers were punished by shaving their heads bald. This was done so that everyone would know they betrayed their country.
There are many dark sides to war, and in most cases, it is the innocent and oppressed that suffer. One such dark side to the war was the brutal head-shaving and beating of women in France who had been charged with collaborating with the enemy. Basically, the women, who have been
known to have physical relationships with German soldiers, were publicly harassed and punished by shaving their head bald.

The punishment of shaving women’s hair, which is supposed to be the most seductive feature of a woman, dates back to the biblical times. It was a common
punishment for adultery. During the 20th century, it was reintroduced as a means to ridicule women who had physical relationships with the enemy or were prostitutes.

During World War II, this act of humiliation was repeated on French women accused of collaborating with the
German soldiers. Apart from shaving their heads, they were paraded in the streets, marked with black ink, and even stripped half naked. At least 20,000 women have been documented to have had their heads shaved.
#7

GUTENBERG PRINTING PRESS (1440)

The printing press is perhaps the most important invention of the last 2,000 years. German printer Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press introduced movable type printing to Europe, revolutionizing literacy
and acting as a catalyst for the spread of knowledge throughout the world. His invention was one of the major driving forces behind the Renaissance. Before the Gutenberg press, books were copied by hand and were very expensive. Monks, scribes, and the educated labored for many
hours by oil lamp to make copies of literature, religious texts, official documents, etc. In some cases, the process could take years.

After Gutenberg made his printing press, books could be printed in a tiny fraction of the time. It is hard to overestimate the implications of
this: suddenly, people could have their own copies of books and read them for themselves. Education was no longer limited to a select few. Books were not just for the rich and affluent; as their price dropped, they could be sold to the lower classes as well. Political pamphlets
could be printed up by the thousands and influence social movements like never before. Gutenberg’s printing press changed the world and the everyday life of human beings.
#8

MEDICAL REVOLUTION (19TH-20TH CENTURY)
Via umwblogs
Imagine a world without doctors or modern medicine - go ahead, we’ll wait. Yeah, pretty scary, wasn’t it? It’s hard to believe that as recently as a few centuries ago, even with our improved understanding of human anatomy,
diseases were thought to be caused by evil spirits or as divine punishment for sinners.

The work of Louis Pasteur led to a wide acceptance of the germ theory of disease, which allowed for cures for many infectious diseases to be developed in the 19th century. The invention of
vaccines eliminated horrific diseases like smallpox from the face of the earth and immunized children against polio and rabies. Public health measures were passed as the growing populations of cities made systematic sanitation necessary. Alexander Fleming invented Penicillin
as the first real antibiotic in 1928, which proved to be effective against many deadly bacterial infections. These developments, along with advances in technology, chemistry, and biology, led to the age of modern medicine.
#9

PROTESTANT REFORMATION (1517-1750)

Chances are you’ve heard the Protestant Reformation portrayed as something as simple as Martin Luther nailing his “95 Theses” to the door of a church, instead of the major European sociopolitical movement that it was. Not to mention
the deep-going ideological, political and religious ramifications for future societies. The Reformation started as a religious struggle to question the absolute authority and practices of the Roman Catholic Church but quickly spread throughout Western and Central Europe as an
anti-feudal movement.

The Reformation led to the split between Protestants and Catholics, the Catholic Church losing its monopoly on religion and the implementation of Protestant reforms. In a larger historical sense, the Reformation was important to the struggle against
feudalism. Intellect and culture were freed from Catholic domination, and the subordination of the church to the state led to the age of science and secularism. Reformers moving to the New World would have enormous influence on the founding of the United States, and would
culminate in the 30 Years War. Neither the Age of Enlightenment nor the Industrial Revolution would have been possible without the Protestant Reformation.
#10

RENAISSANCE (14TH-17TH CENTURY)

Say names like Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, and you’ll get an idea how much the Renaissance contributed to the world. One of the most culturally and architecturally rich periods of world history, it marked the final
transition from the Middle Ages to the modern period. The Renaissance triggered the rebirth of civilization after the Black Death, pushing ignorance aside and giving birth to the development of mathematics and astronomy. Books were printed for the first time, giving the common
man the ability to read at will (previously the domain of priests and monks). Science, art, and literature advanced to new heights. World maps were drawn up and new civilizations discovered, as we finally rejected the idea that the earth was the center of the universe.
The Renaissance was a time of great minds questioning tradition and standing beliefs. The most distinctive features of Renaissance culture were its anti-feudal, secular, humanistic character and worldview. It was an awakening to the world and the beginning of the modern era.
#11

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