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1/n #SadarPranam to Ishvara within u @yusufpore ji. It was not fair play by you to crit @Tejasvi_Surya & not tag him.

Anyways I read whole thread praising #Mughals & this thread is a rebuttal to your claims, which u may respond, when tweet reads n/n & should u hv enuf substance.
2/n This is a rubbish claim. Baburnama has no record of it (point of agreement comes in the translator's note).

It is to be noted that he wasn't writing his diary during that period. Rajput chroniclers say otherwise than what GN Sharma claims.
3/n @yusufpore , in fact, Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of the Punjab and the king's uncle, invited Babur, the ruler of Kabul, to invade India.

Source: "Muslim Civilization" in India by SM Ikram edited by Ainslie T. Embree, Chapter VI
4/n Baburnama too has the mention of same again in translator's note about Daulat Khan appealing Babur to come to India to defeat Ibrahim.

While Translator had no primary source for Rana inviting Babur, this has the mention of Ahmad Yadgar.

Source: The Baburnama by Annette S
5/n @yusufpore now let us analyze the citation given by you. GN Sharma mentions of Rajput chronicler (Unknown). He mentions that Babur asks for help from Rana & not otherways as u hint.

GN Sharma does not mention what exactly Rana wrote back.
6/n It is a juxtaposition that Rana offered support. There is no primary or secondary source to establish this claim. Now moving on to the next part. Sharma explains why it is even foolish to believe that Rana would ask for help from Babur.
7/n Yes, Sharma claims that Sanga didn't honor the agreement. But anyone who had read more on the subject would find him confused here as he starts mentioning probable reasons for betrayal.
Pl note, both the source & content of Rana's letter are unknown.
8/n History does not care about the Historian's opinion but analysis based on the opinion of those who witnessed it. GN Sharma tries to explain that betrayal made Babur furious against Rana, & he saw it as an insult to Islam. But Baburanma has something else to say.
9/n One who has read Baburnama will understand that it is not just one incidence of Rana's so-called "betrayal" that would make him Jihadi. This thread has document references from Baburnama to prove his Jihadi trait.

Let's look at Baburnama more closely.
10/n Did Rana's betrayal made Babur stay life long in India & fight with Rana as GN Sharma implies?

Writes SM Ikram in his book“Muslim Civilization in India” that “Babur paid attention to India only bcoz he had lost everything in HOME“ (paraphrased).

Details in Snippet.
11/n Further if I refer to “The Baburnama in English (Memoirs of Babur) by Annette Susannah” pg 358:

Babur was forced to take refuge in Bukhara. It had become impossible for him to maintain footing in Samarkand & he moved to Hisar along with family.

He had lost it completely.
12/n pg 479-80

Babur mentions himself to be the third 3rd Tramontana conquerer of Hindustan. First being Mahmud.

He clearly states of how he was engulfed in crisis & his Quandhar, Kabul badly needed it.
13/n While describing India, “Babur” mentions of “abundant gold & silver”.

He also talks about the easily available workforce.

Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 519-20
14/n Babur further talks about the terrific revenue he is able to generate for the obedient nature of Indian Subjects.

Check highlights in the snippet. Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 520-21
15/n @yusufpore I’m sure you understand well what £ 4,212,000 revenue meant in 1528 for the king who had lost his core “samrajya” (Samarkand) & was struggling for existence.
16/n So if one carefully goes in details related to tweet 15/n, it’s evident enough that Babur wasn’t in the mood to go back for following obvious reasons(& not for love for Ind or anything):
1)No control back home
2)Easy Revenue in India for docile people
3)Access to BIG Wealth
17/n And its best explained by Babur’s will to be buried in “Kabul”.

Ref: “The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)
by Annette Susannah” pg 709

Your this tweet is clarified well till the above tweet and now let us move to your remainders.
18/n Coming to your next claim that Akbar gave the largest centralized states in world.

FYI Russia happens to be the largest centralized state ever with 22.8 Mm2 in 1890 AD.

India under the Mughal Empire was largest in 1690 AD (Aurangzeb) with 4 Mm2.

19/n And India was the largest centralized state under Mauryas (250 BC) in an area of 5 Mm2. So Akbar was not best among Mughals in terms of Centralised State expanse.
Source: East-West Orientation of Historical Empires and Modern States
20/n @yusufpore, You praise Sher Shah, but I do not know for what because you have not been specific. Let me pick a few famous things which people associate with him.

In case u talk of a centralized Rupya, then you must be made aware of Pāṇini. (6th Cen BCE).
21/n Pāṇini uses rūpya & perhaps it existed even before him. Source: Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics.

Arthashastra too has mention of same.
22/n @yusufpore in case you wish to talk about the road network, especially GT Road by Sher Shah Suri than u must be told that GT Road has existed from not less than the Mauryan period & was called"Uttarpatha".Read 15/n to 28/n in this thread to learn it.
23/n The point is that, yes Sher Shah did improvise the road a bit to facilitate his heavy movements. You will definitely agree that resources are always required to live hence there was nothing great if he did the retrofit of already laid system, unique of its time (4th Cen BC).
24/n @yusufpore Not only this we also had Dakshinapatha ( a road connecting East to South). There was no country in the world with such a large road network.

Read 29/n & 30/n in this thread.
25/n India had a very advanced road network for trade. It was unavoidable for the richest country in the world.

It will be foolish to say that Mughals gave the road to India.

They added infrastructure just as retrofitting to the existing, not for India but their own revenues.
26/n Because @yusufpore u have praised Sher Shah & acknowledge that Akbar took a lot from him, let's see this.

Shaikh Nizam, counseled, "There is nothing equal to a religious war against the infidels. If you are slain you become a martyr if you live you become a ghazi."
27/n Sher Shah's Mughal army then attacked the Hindu fort of Kalinjar, captured it, killing every Hindu infidel inside that fort.

Source: Elliot and Dowson, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians - The Muhammadan Period, Vol. 4
28/n @yusufpore Let me speak a bit about Akbar's mess up of the administration.

“Akbar’s taxes were highest”.

Ref: Muslim Civilization in India by S. M. Ikram edited by
Ainslie T. Embree, Chapter XVL

I’m quoting more details in trailing tweets.
29/n Now I'll use this book "The Cambridge Economic History of India” edited by T Raychudhuri & I Habib to shower more light on Akbar's mess up.
30/n Irfan Habib mentions about forced productions by various including Asaf Khan for their own financial benefits.

He even talks about extortion & gives the example of Shaista Khan & Prince Azimushshan.

Check snippet

Ref: Pg 183
31/n Irfan Habib further gives an account of money hoarding at large scale by Mughal Emperors including Akbar.

He quotes De Laet who mentions Akbar’s treasure to be ~522.4 million florins & Sarista Khan to have hoarded ₹380 million.

Awesome Administration!

Snippet pg 183
32/n Irfan Habib then talks of a one-way flow of wealth during Mughal Reign, ie: from outer provinces to the central parts of Empire.

He states: The Mughal Empire was a machine to extract resources...

That’s how the wealth of Golconda was drained.

Details in Snippet: Pg 184
33/n Irfan Habib quotes Ovington, for stating how “Baniyas” had to keep wealth secret from them not to become the wealth of Mughal officers.

Snippet: pg 185
34/n Irfan Habib further talks about extortion & tendency to not return the loan taken from merchants.

The merchants were always lived in fear of showing the wealth they had.

Snippet: pg 186

Definitely life of merchants was horrible in Mughal period.
35/n Irfan Habib further quotes Fryer to talk about corruption @ the clerical level.

He says: besides Zakat(1/14th of travelers’ income)heavy toll tax was imposed. It’s a myth that Aurangzeb had removed toll tax. He quotes Thevenot to talk about the excessive toll.
Snippet:Pg187
36/n He further writes on pg 188 that besides Jiziya, the duty of 5% was imposed on Hindus while Muslims paid only 2.5%. This was the evil intention of Aurangzeb as he wanted more Hindus to be converted.

(I have touched a bit upon longer period than Akbar)
37/n Not to forget Irfan Habib quotes Ovington on pg189 to explain that Hindus were often treated with inhumanity & neglect, bcoz of their adhesion to the principles of a religion which is different from that of the state.

This was happening under the Mughal reign.
38/n Many people blame upon Marathas take-over to be the reason for economic downfall but in reality, Mughals passed on an economically weakened India to Marathas as per Irfan Habib.
39/n Irfan Habib categorically mentions wars & Mughal desire to conquer as a major reason for the economic failure of India, followed by their own decline. Moreover, the tyranny of the governors was causing Merchants to shut business.

Following snippets explain at best(p192-95).
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