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To prevent the innocent youth of #Pakistan from being radicalized into terrorism by liberals, leftist academics & ethnic nationalists on media or university campuses, it’s important to bust such falsifications of history, as being done here by Sardar Akhtar Mengal.


Being a #baloch, I find it abhorrent that nationalists use myths & manufactured history to turn the youth away from serving our own state.

Firstly, there was no #Balochistan state then & there was no princely state or parliament representing present day Balochistan in 1947.

#Balochistan’s area at the time of partition in 1947 consisted of

#Gwadar ruled by Oman &
5units of Balochistan Agency:

1-British Chief Commissioner’s Balochistan
2-Princely State of Kharan.
3-Princely State of Lasbela.
4-Princely State of Makran.
5-Princely State of Kalat

Balochistan Agency was created to colonize Balochistan in 1877 after
Treaty of Mastung 1854
Treaty of Kalat 1875
Treaty of Jacobabad 1876

These treaties were negotiated so cleverly by Sir Robert Sandeman that he’s called
‘Peaceful Conquerer of Baluchistan’ by A.L.P. Tucker.

By signing these 3 treaties KhaneKalat had effectively lost political control outside Kalat State by 1877 & accepted British Political Agent as the ultimate arbitrator in disputes amongst baloch sardars.

In return for a payment & military support against Afghan incursions.

Khan of Kalat, Nawabs of Makran & Kharan & Jam of Lasbela were called to the Royal Delhi Durbar of 1903 in recognition of their status as princely states.
Nawabs of Sarawan & Jhalawan never received this invitation or titles since they’re considered under suzerainty of Kalat.

11 Aug 1947 when Khan of Kalat signed a Standstill AG with Jinnah to negotiate terms of accession Kharan, Makran, Lasbela categorically rejected Kalat’s claims of suzerainty.

Jinnah signed in good faith expecting all states to ultimately accede.
Mountbatten refused to sign.

Chief Commissioner’s Balochistan overwhelmingly voted for accession to #Pakistan at ‘Shahi Jirga’ in Quetta after a spirited campaign by Qazi M Essa head of Baluchistan Provincial Muslim League.

He not only rallied people in Baluchistan but also in KPK to vote for Pakistan.

Princely State of Kharan was ruled by Mir Habibullah Khan Nowsherwani who favoured accession to Pakistan so highly that he wrote to QaideAzam lamenting delays in Kharan’s merger with Pakistan & proclaimed:
“People of Kharan are independent from Kalat & will die for Pakistan.”

Princely State of Lasbela was ruled by Jam Ghulam Qadir Khan, grandfather of current CM #Balochistan @jam_kamal

He also repeatedly wrote to #QaideAzam regarding pressure politics of Khan of Kalat after British rule ended & demanded a quick accession of Lasbela to #Pakistan.

Princely State of Makran was ruled by Nawab Bai Khan Gichki who insisted on QaideAzam to accept an immediate accession of Makran to Pakistan & upon delays, grew impatient & threatened that:

“If Pakistan doesn’t accept Makran’s accession soon, then we may approach others.”

Princely State of Kalat mere 26% of today’s province of #Balochistan was ruled by Mir Ahmed Yar Khan who was close to #QaideAzam, his legal adviser.

Kalat had a nominated parliament dominated by pro Congress & anti Muslim League politicians of Kalat State National Party.

Khan of Kalat knew that independence wasn’t an option for him & princely states were to eventually choose b/w accession to Pakistan/India & accession to India wasn’t feasible due to the geography.

He negotiated with QaideAzam to get max influence upon accession to Pakistan.

After Standstill agreement, KhaneKalat asked Kalat’s parliament to vote on accession where politicians of Kalat State National Party Malik Saeed Khan Dehwar, Gul Khan Naseer, Alijah Ghous Bux Mengal, Ghous Bux Bizenjo allied with Indian Congress & voted against accession.

Khan of Kalat refused to ratify this vote of Kalat’s houses of parliament, instead lobbied for accession to Pakistan, while attempting to use this vote in negotiations with QaideAzam as leverage to maximise his own influence in any future political setup as part of Pakistan.

These negotiating tactics by KhaneKalat delayed the accession to Pakistan till Feb 1948.

It disappointed QaideAzam in Ahmed Yar Khan & he eventually accepted pending accession requests of Kharan Lasbela & Makran.

It isolated Kalat being landlocked in middle of Balochistan.

On top of Kalat’s isolation, on 27th March 1948 an All India Radio Broadcast announced:

“Kalat requested accession to India, which Nehru has rejected”

This humiliated Khan of Kalat, he denied making such a request & hurriedly announced Kalat state’s accession to Pakistan.

Another gross misrepresentation of historical facts by nationalists is that Ahmed Yar Khan signed Kalat’s accession to #Pakistan under #PakArmy’s gun point!

He was indeed arrested, not in 1948 but on 6 Oct 1958, after his public opposition to the One Unit by Ayub Khan Govt.

But in 1948 not only was KhaneKalat not arrested, he was honoured by #Pakistan with a royal title & appointed as the ceremonial ‘KhaneAzam’ of a newly created Tribal Council of Balochistan called Balochistan States Union comprising states of Kharan, Makran, Lasbela & Kalat.

Nationalist leaders of Kalat, Mir Ghous Bux Bizenjo, Mir Gul Khan Naseer & Mir Ahmed Yar Khan himself have written books & they haven’t even remotely alluded to the accession as being forced in any way.

KhaneKalat’s family themselves linked his decision to a dream of his.


1- Mir Ghous Bux Bizenjo, In Search of Solutions An Autobiography, Pakistan Study Centre. Edited by B.M Kutty.

2-Mir Gul Khan Naseer, Tarikhe Balochistan, Quetta.

3-Mir Ahmed Yar Khan, Inside Baluchistan: Political Autobiography of Khan-e-Azam.

4-People of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, Yuri V Gankovsky

5-Back to the Future Khanate of Kalat & Genesis of Balochistan, Martin Axmann.

6-Accession of Kalat, Professor Dushku Sayyid Wolfson College University of Cambridge.

7-Balochistan Problem, by Imtiaz Ali.

8-History of Baloch Race & Balochistan by Sardar Mohammad K Baluch.

9-Problem of Greater Baluchistan by Inayatullah Baluch.

10-Searchlight of Baloch & Balochistan, by Mir Khuda Buksh Baloch.

11-Baloch Nationalism: Origins & Development, Taj Mohammad Breseeg

12-Good for one but not the other: The Sandman System, by Christian Tripodi

13-Sir Robert Sandeman: Peaceful Conqueror of Balochistan by ALP Tucker.

14-Baloch in Search of Identity, by Naimatullah Gichki.

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