My Authors
Read all threads
#IndoAryan faunal etymology!

#Khowar òhc /ôht͡s/ ('bear'), loan from a #Nuristani language like #Waigali.

Although cognate to #Sanskrit ŕ̥kṣaḣ, the Khowar form is probably not descended from it, i.e., not native to Khowar. Sanskrit kṣ regularly corresponds to c̣ʰ /ʈ͡ʂʰ/ ...
... in Khowar & other northern Indo-Aryan languages, and not to c /t͡s/.

Instead c /t͡s/ is seen in the neighboring Nuristani languages, cf.
- #Waigali ōc
- #Kam ic
- #Kati ic

The presence of c /t͡s/ in this (class of) word(s) is significant because it marks the uniqueness ...
... of Nuristani languages within Indo-Iranian (or Aryan for those who believe that Nuristani "split off" first from the Aryan linguistic mix while Indo-Iranian was still unified, thus distinguishing the bigger "Aryan" from the subgroup "Indo-Iranian").

In the Nuristani ...
... languages, a historical PIE *k̂ in consonant clusters did not trigger the RUKI retraction. So, while PIE *h₂ŕ̥tk̂os became Sanskrit ŕ̥kṣaḣ ('bear') and PIE *dék̂sinos ('right') became dákṣiṇaḣ, in Nuristani cognates occur with c /t͡s/, viz., Kati ic and dāciu.

Note ...
... that this isn't a later change of kṣ or c̣(ʰ) /ʈ͡ʂ(ʰ)/ to c /t͡s/ in Nuristani since Nuristani does have native instances of c̣ /ʈ͡ʂ/ or ṣ /ʂ/ for Sanskrit kṣ whenever this kṣ corresponds to PIE *k(ʷ)s, e.g.,
- Sanskrit kṣáp v. Ashkun c̣ū ('night') < PIE *kʷséps
- Sanskrit kṣatá- v. Waigali c̣ō ('wounded')
- Sanskrit yakṣáḣ v. Waigali yūṣ (a kind of supernatural being)

There are also instances of ć /t͡ɕ/ corresponding to Sanskrit kṣ, and some of those have been dismissed as Indo-Aryan loans, but it is worthwhile to note that ...
... there is some amount of cross-dialectal free variation between c̣ /ʈ͡ʂ/ and ć /t͡ɕ/ in the Nuristani languages. In any case, that variation doesn't extend to c /t͡s/ barring a few exceptions.

Getting back to *h₂ŕ̥tk̂os, we see both a Nuristani loan and a native form ...
... surviving across #Kalasha-mun. While most dialects have ic /it͡s/, loaned from Kam or Kati, the dialect of the Urtsun Valley keeps native ic̣ /iʈ͡ʂ/.
Missing some Tweet in this thread? You can try to force a refresh.

Enjoying this thread?

Keep Current with Sāmapriẏa Basu

Profile picture

Stay in touch and get notified when new unrolls are available from this author!

Read all threads

This Thread may be Removed Anytime!

Twitter may remove this content at anytime, convert it as a PDF, save and print for later use!

Try unrolling a thread yourself!

how to unroll video

1) Follow Thread Reader App on Twitter so you can easily mention us!

2) Go to a Twitter thread (series of Tweets by the same owner) and mention us with a keyword "unroll" @threadreaderapp unroll

You can practice here first or read more on our help page!

Follow Us on Twitter!

Did Thread Reader help you today?

Support us! We are indie developers!

This site is made by just two indie developers on a laptop doing marketing, support and development! Read more about the story.

Become a Premium Member ($3.00/month or $30.00/year) and get exclusive features!

Become Premium

Too expensive? Make a small donation by buying us coffee ($5) or help with server cost ($10)

Donate via Paypal Become our Patreon

Thank you for your support!