Immunocompromised people can get severely ill or even die of infections with cold coronaviruses. Eventually, immune function/suppression falls on a spectrum and has various causes. Advanced age and hormonal imbalances are typical examples, the latter observed in e.g. T2 diabetes. Image
"This study shows that all known non-SARS HCoVs can be found in stools of children with acute gastroenteritis."
Infection of the digestive system is not unique to SARS coronaviruses, although HCoVs are usually not the main pathogens that cause diarrhea. sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Infecting the central nervous system has also been described, sometimes with nasty effects. Image
Quite interestingly, the shedding pattern, which is characterized by a long pause and then reappearance, is also known about HCoVs in children with vulnerable immune systems. Image
Kids are underrepresented among cases among both SARS and MERS infections, and their disease is consistently milder.
The good news is that you only need to check a single review to find all these nice references. academic.oup.com/jpids/article/…

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More from @gerdosi

24 Aug
Antibody depending enhancement was a threat that looked possible (or even likely) a year ago, based on experience with historical CoV vaccine attempts. Then it started to look like a non-issue during trials and early rollout. Now it’s back on the table. First described in… 1/7
…a paper published in February, i.e. prior the emergence of Delta and only looking at Wuhan-Wuhan re-exposure. Enhancement was seen in just a small subset of macaques:
cell.com/cell/fulltext/…
Then a study that used a Wuhan-Delta sequence of spike exposure found something… 2/7
…really different👇🏻 journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-…
So what does that mean, what can we expect now that the 3rd doses of Wuhan spike based vaccines are being rolled out? The Original Antigenic Sin concept tells us that repeated exposure preferentially boosts old antibodies. (More… 3/7
Read 8 tweets
10 Aug
In below thread immunosuppression was identified as the likely mechanism for the observed ⬆️ risk of COVID during the 1st 14 days post first jab.
A study looking at immunological changes in yellow fever vaccination reported very similar trajectories. tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.10…
1/4
“We found that the numbers of leukocytes sharply declined 7 days after vaccination, increasing back to baseline levels after 14 days. In contrast to primary vaccination, we did not observe a decrease of cell counts after recall vaccination (10 years after primary).” 2/4
The Phase I/II trials of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine also showed this transient immunosuppression. Rather profound effect. nature.com/articles/s4158…
Thanks to @dockaurG for the link.
3/4
Read 4 tweets
22 Jun
Once again, old science (image to the left) predicts new findings (image to the right). One thing remains common: negligence

Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary: A neglected toxicity risk? sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Reviewed here:
Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive system
dovepress.com/potential-adve…
The literature is full of papers that describe lipid nanoparticles as specific delivery machines of (e.g. anti-cancer) drugs to the ovaries.
Read 4 tweets
11 May
1/ I have a thread about natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2, but I was asked to do a comparison with vaccine induced immunization. Interestingly, deep analysis of the two is largely missing. A recent study will do the job,
science.sciencemag.org/content/early/…
2/ but we need to focus on results, not conclusions, because even though the study was designed to compare the two types of immunization, plus added the effect of a booster jab on top of infection, the interpretation is a bit twisted to mostly compare the 2 jab scenarios.
3/ Quote:
"Three individuals who previously showed a response, despite lack of laboratory evidence for infection (therefore presumably a cross-reactive response to an endemic human coronavirus) showed an unchanged or decreased [T cell] response to spike after vaccination."
Read 32 tweets
28 Apr
There’s a curious correlation between countries/regions of high prior SARS2 exposure and a resurgence upon the start of mass V immunization programs. I’ve been thinking a lot about this lately, and the only explanation that could fit observations is… 1/
bmj.com/content/372/bm…
reactivation of dormant viruses in the population. (Seasonal) respiratory viral dormancy has been debated a lot for decades, but there’s still no consensus on where exactly these virions could lay dormant in the body, nor on the trigger(s) & mechanism(s) responsible for… 2/
reactivation. In light of recent research, my (educated?) guess is that the small intestine, and associated immune structures, is more likely place for this to occur than the respiratory tract. Admittedly, this is speculative, but neither implausible nor could I come up with… 3/
Read 26 tweets
26 Apr
Neurological complications of COVID-19 are the result of spike mimicry induced autoimmunity?
“these mAbs target both anti-viral and anti-neural antigens—including one mAb that reacted to both spike protein and neural tissue.”
cell.com/cell-reports-m…
“Testing for antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4) was positive in 22 patients” out of 23.
Autoimmunity is the most likely reason for the thrombotic events, at least in connection with the Oxford/AZ adenovirus vector vaccine.
nejm.org/doi/full/10.10…
Read 7 tweets

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