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Mechanics and Yantra (Machine) Science in Hinduism

In Maharishi Kaṇāda's Vaishesika Darshan, the word 'Karma' means motion. There are five types of motion account to vaishesika.
1.) उत्क्षेपण (upward motion)
2.) अवक्षेपण (downward motion)
3.) आकुञ्चन (Motion due to the release of tensile stress)
4.) प्रसारण (Shearing motion)
5.) गमन (General Type of motion)
It is analyzed in Vaiseshika Darshan to know the different karma or motion based on its cause.

1) Due to propulsion - constant pressure
2) Due to effort - like shaking hands
3) Due to gravity - something falls down
4) Due to fluidity - flow of microscopic particles
Instruments and functions of Yantras (machine)

The main instrument of Yantra is described in a scripture called ‘यंत्रार्णव‘ Yatraranava:

दंडैश्चक्रैच दंतैश्च सरणिभ्रमणादिभि:
शक्तेरूत्पांदनं किं वा चालानं यंत्रमुच्यते॥
Means Yantra is a contrivance consisting of दंड- Lever, चक्र- Pulley, दंत- toothed wheel, सरणि- inclined plane, भ्रमण- Screw ‌and is required for producing शक्ति (Power or motion) of changing its direction.
A Yantra consist of three parts:

Beej– the producer of action
Rivet– the pin bringing power and work‌
Power– the ability‌ of doing the work

In this way, the Yantra moves with its three parts, the five instruments and the actions they take. This produces a variety of movements.
तिर्यगूर्ध्वंमध: पृष्ठे पुरत: पार्श्वयोरपि
गमनं सरणं पात इति भेदा: क्रियोद्भवा:॥ समरांगण-अ ३१

Different tasks have different speeds depending on the need, which completes the task.
1) Slanting
2) Upwards
3) Downwards
4) Backwards
5) Forward
6) Sideways
Hydraulic Machine (Turbine) -

In the context, the use of water stream in the production of power, in the 31st chapter of the book 'Samrangana Sutradhara', it is said-
The load and velocity of the flowing stream is used in the hydraulic machine to produce power. The stream rotates the object and if the stream falls from a height, it has a great effect and fumes in proportion to its weight and velocity. This creates power.
सङ्गृहीतश्च दत्तश्च पूरित: प्रतनोदित:।
मरुद्‌ बीजत्वमायाति यंत्रेषु जलजन्मसु। समरांगण-३१

The water to be stored, used for influencing and reacting, is the path through which force is used as power. Its process is described in detail in this chapter.

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