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15 Sep, 96 tweets, 14 min read
This is the start of a eugenics thread and content will be added periodically.

Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 47

Relative to eugenics.

[ Filed with Secretary of State September 12, 2003. ]

1. Eugenics timeline.…
2. Better babies U.S.A.
"If there is a standard for calves and colts, why not for babies, in order that each mother may strive toward (that standard) for her child," wrote Outlook Magazine in 1913.
The 'scientific' baby contests during the early years of the 20th century typically took place in conjunction with state fairs & flower shows. The baby contests gave parents guidelines for raising healthy children & gave doctors checklists of criteria to look for in such children
Doctors would fill out a Better Babies Standard Score Card for each child who came to their tent. A baby's scores in mental & developmental tests various measurements & the physical examinations could add up to 'perfection'-some maximum number of points-or to a lower score.
At some fairs points were deducted if the baby seemed highly nervous or unmanageable, deviated from the prescribed height measurements for the age group by as little as 1/4 of an inch, had a pimple, scanty hair, stubby fingers, flabby muscles, or skin that was not 'soft & smooth.
The scientific Better Baby Contests were grassroots reflections of the eugenics movement, the push to improve the human stock and better the 'race.
Attention to the production of 'eugenic' babies-babies who were well born, with good heredity-focused people's attention on their personal genetic endowments and those of their marriage partners.
Do people look for certain traits in the partners they choose? What traits does American society prize? Which ones do you prize? Which ones might you seek in a mate? Are choices that people make about marriage and dating subtle or subliminal forms of eugenics?
2. Carrie Buck & The Lynchburg State Colony
The director of Virginia's Lynchburg Hospital was looking through old office files in 1980 when he came upon some startling records: from the 1920s until 1972, his hospital had sterilized some 4000 patients.
Most had no idea that they were being sterilized. Most had not given their consent for the surgical procedures that the hospital put them through.
The hospital, called at various times the Virginia State Epileptic Colony and Lynchburg State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, was the largest institution of its kind in the United States.
It opened in 1910 & became a dumping ground for several sorts of people including Virginia's poorest residents, teens from broken homes & those whom state officials considered socially inadequate. Many of the people in these categories were labeled with a vague term-feebleminded.
Colony officials were intent on weeding out those whom they felt would contaminate the purity and soundness of the white 'race.' They assumed that "like produces like" and thus targeted those whose likenesses they did not wish to see perpetuated.
Their reasoning was that, by sterilizing 'unfit' people, the state's burden of unfit individuals-people who would need institutionalization, often for life-would eventually diminish
By 1924, the state of Virginia had a draft eugenic sterilization act, which called for sterilizations for two purposes: to promote an individual's health or to protect the welfare of society.
The second provision-protecting society-was directed at giving the doctors at the Colony the legal backing they needed for sterilizing patients.
Colony officials decided to test whether the sterilization act was constitutional and selected a young woman from the Colony named Carrie Buck as the test 'case.'
Carrie had been sent to Lynchburg when she was a teenager. Before that, she had lived with her foster parents-J.T. and Alice Dobbs. Mr. and Mrs. Dobbs claimed that Carrie had epilepsy and was feebleminded.
When reporters & others interviewed Carrie in the 1980s they found she was a woman of probably average intelligence a person who enjoyed working crossword puzzles & reading, someone who had just played the role of Mary in a Christmas play at the nursing home where she was living.
Carrie was not feebleminded. She had been sent to the Colony because she was pregnant. The Dobbses had her committed to hide the fact that their nephew had raped Carrie.
As the courts debated the case several groups fought against Carrie's pending sterilization. The case eventually wound up in the U.S. Supreme Court, which decided in 1927 in an 8:1 vote to uphold the Virginia decision to sterilize Carrie. The majority opinion in Buck v. Bell.
(Bell was chief physician at the Lynchburg hospital at the time that Carrie was sterilized) was written by Oliver Wendell Holmes & included the famous statement:
"Three generations of imbeciles are enough." According to these justices, it was okay under the law to sterilize the socially 'inadequate.'
The 3 generations Holmes referred to were Carrie, Carrie's mother (Emma), and Carrie's child (Vivian). Emma had several illegitimate children in addition to Carrie, and, according to one commentator, her "deviance was social and sexual; the charge of imbecility was a cover-up ?"
Vivian was born in 1924 and was an infant at the time of the hearings. A social worker who examined the seven-month-old baby testified in court-"There is a look about it that is not quite normal, but just what it is, I can't tell."
That was the evidence for Vivian's 'imbecility.' When, years later, investigators looked back at Vivian's elementary school report cards, they discovered that she was a good child and an average student-not an 'imbecile' at all.
Virginia was one of the most zealous states concerning eugenic sterilizations. California was another. By 1935, some 20,000 forced sterilizations had been carried out in the United States, half in California.
The procedures were fairly straightforward-for men, vasectomy (cutting and removal of a portion of the vas deferens) and for women, salpingectomy (cutting and tying off the Fallopian tubes).
Most of the people who were involuntarily sterilized lived in hospitals, group homes, and prisons, and, for some, the 'price' they were made to pay to get out was sterilization. Sometimes, though, even after the person agreed to the procedure, freedom was not granted.
Many Virginians were unaware that they had been sterilized until the Lynchburg story hit the press and lawyers from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed a class action suit on their behalf.
Carrie's sister, Doris, for example, wanted desperately to have children and spent years trying and failing. Only late in life did Doris learn that she, like Carrie, had been sterilized. When the ACLU lawyer interviewed Doris, she said, "I'm not mad; just brokenhearted."
The ACLU's involvement lasted five years. Early on, they contacted some of the people they thought might have been sterilized.
But during some of these first encounters, they learned how devastating & humiliating the sterilizations had been to the victims, to their marriages, and to their lives overall. Sometimes the people did not actually know that they had been sterilized until the lawyers told them.
Thereafter, the ACLU waited for people to contact them. Reporters found some of the victims and encouraged them to join in the suit. In the end, the victims received only small compensation from the state. They were given mental health counseling if they wanted it.
But no formal apology ever came from the state, nor did financial awards or opportunities to have the surgeries reversed (where possible). Furthermore, Virginia's eugenic sterilization law was not found to be unconstitutional.
Their thinking: It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind.
3. Rural Cacogenic Families
What traits, diseases, behaviors, and conditions run in families-genius? laziness? hair color? criminality? height? heart disease? athletic prowess?
aggression? shyness? diabetes? promiscuity? blindness? retardation? cancer? depression? obesity? loquacity? drunkenness? feeblemindedness? eye color? musicality?
Charles Davenport, a biologist, eugenicist, and mathematician, lobbied for the establishment of an institution at which scientists could study genes, heredity, and human evolution.
In 1904, the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was set up as a section of the Station for Experimental Evolution at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Davenport was the Station's director, and he hired another biologist and eugenicist, Harry Laughlin, to run the ERO.
Both the eugenics researchers and their wealthy sponsors-Mrs. E.R. Harriman, John D. Rockefeller, and others-were intrigued by the possibility of fixing social problems by fixing or eliminating genes.
They approached human inheritance nonexperimentally. They collected wide-ranging 'genetic'data about people, their living relatives, and their ancestors.
The ERO trained caseworkers to go into the community to talk to people about themselves and their family members and to assess some of their characteristics. The ERO encouraged people to mail to them their family records and case histories.
During the 35 years of its existence, the ERO assembled thousands of documents, including pedigrees and personal and family histories, case studies, and so on, describing traits, characteristics, and diseases in individuals and families and across generations.
Some of the data from the ERO and other information about the eugenics work done there were posted on the internet early in the year 2000 at
Policy makers from the ERO worked with physicians and lawmakers in individual states to help them draft and enact state eugenic sterilization laws that would sanction sterilization of members of 'cacogenic' families, those with 'bad' genes.
(The Greek word 'kakos' means 'bad.') They also supported federal legislation restricting the immigration of people into the United States from southern and eastern European countries.
These two activities fall into the category of 'negative eugenics,' activities that would lead to the reduction and removal of so-called undesirable people from society and would keep them from producing more people of their kind.
The 'feebleminded' were the eugenicists main targets; they believed that feeblemindedness was directly linked to social dependency, promiscuity, criminality, low IQ, and abnormal behavior.
Laughlin published a 'Model Eugenical Sterilization Law' in 1922 providing exact language that states could use to define persons who should be sterilized and detailing how the decisions should be made and the sterilizations carried out.
The federal immigration laws were directed toward identifying and stopping at the U.S. border cacogenic individuals trying to enter the United States; the eugenicists felt that these people brought with them genes that would contribute to 'race degeneration.'
The ERO thrived for some years but eventually closed in 1939, when the eugenics movement in the United States had lost popularity and Hitler was carrying 'race betterment' to unacceptable extremes in Germany.
But, even without continued backing from the ERO, eugenic sterilizations went on in the United States for many more decades.
4. The Nazi Eugenics Programs
The economy of Germany was in shambles at the end of World War I. The population was decimated. this was the Weimar Republic, which was in power from 1919-1933.
It looked to popular eugenic theories for ways to restore and improve the health and physical wellbeing of the populace.
In 1932, inspired in part by Laughlin's Model Eugenics Law and other writings in the United States, the Weimar government drafted a plan for sterilizations of individuals with "hereditary illnesses.
Many people were living in institutions, and they were costly to the country. Sterilizing them would prevent them from having children; some might then also be able to leave the institution and live on their own.
The plan involved those to be sterilized (or their guardians) in decisionmaking, requiring prior consent to the procedure. The next year, the National Socialists-Nazis-took control of Germany.
On July 14, 1933, the new government issued its "Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases." This law was far more directive than the Weimar government's plan. People with so-called hereditary illnesses had to be sterilized, even if they objected.
And the list of persons classified as hereditarily ill included those suffering from "congenital feeble-mindedness, schizophrenia, manic depression, hereditary epilepsy, Huntington's chorea, hereditary blindness, hereditary deafness, and serious physical deformities.
People with chronic alcoholism could also be sterilized. The law established some 200 Genetic Health Courts at which teams of lawyers & doctors would subpoena medical records in order to choose candidates for sterilization.
The Court proceedings were secret, & the decisions could rarely be reversed. Throughout Germany, doctors were being trained in "race hygiene."
They were identifying and zealously reporting those in their communities who had any of the so-called genetic diseases and would be candidates for sterilization.
The Nazis and Nazi doctors also were promoting the eugenics strategy of "selective breeding" as a way to rebuild the nation's population, specifically its Aryan population.
In the 6 years before WW II the Nazi doctors sterilized some 400,000 people, mostly German citizens living in asylums. Hitler's Rassenhygiene-race hygiene-program was in full swing. "The 'racial' health of the German people took precedence over the health of any given individual.
By the late 1930s, the Nazi government was using propaganda movies to persuade the public that those who were hereditarily ill and, therefore, dangerous to the health of the nation should be exterminated rather than kept alive as "neutered beings."
The targets for extermination were objectified as "beings of lesser worth," "life unworthy of life," "ballast existences," "useless eaters."
In the autumn of 1939, Hitler approved the Aktion T-4 program, which authorized specific doctors and officials to carry out mercy deaths-euthanasia-of those the state deemed unworthy of life.
Fifty volunteer physicians coordinated the program from its headquarters in a villa in Berlin located at number 4 Tiergarten Street (T-4). Again, physicians at hospitals & psychiatric institutions throughout Germany identified 6 recommended candidates for euthanasia.
At first, in accordance with the T-4 program, the physicians murdered 5000 congenitally deformed children. The children were given lethal injections or were starved to death at six special asylums that had been remodeled to accommodate the killings.
Then, the T-4 program expanded to include adults, who were taken to killing asylums as well. Death certificates were sent to families of those who were killed, falsifying the reasons for their relatives' 'sudden deaths.'
Eventually, church groups and the general public raised objections to the T-4 program. In response, Hitler called a halt to the program. But, by then, August of 1941, almost 70,000 people had been killed under T-4. And, although Aktion T-4 stopped, the killing did not.
Doctors and nurses around the country continued to select and kill people and cover up their actions. Physician historian Edzard Ernst writes that Aktion T-4 "turned out to be nothing less than a 'pilot project' for the extinction of millions in the concentration camps."
Most of the health care practitioners involved in T-4 simply transferred their "technology for killing on an 'industrial scale'" to the Aktion 14f13 program.
Through this next program, 6 million Jews were exterminated in the gas chambers of the concentration camps as well as millions of political prisoners, Gypsies, the handicapped, those too ill to work, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, Afro-Europeans, and Soviet & Polish pow's.
Hitler's race hygiene program relied on and succeeded because of the enthusiastic collaboration of people in the medical community. Wrote Ernst: "German physicians had been involved at all levels and stages. They had developed and accepted the pseudo-science of race hygiene.
They were instrumental in developing it further into applied racism. They had evolved the know-how of mass extinction. Finally, they also performed outrageously cruel and criminal experiments under the guise of scientific inquiry.
The aim of generating pure Aryans had taken precedence over the most fundamental ethical issues in medicine." Under the Nazi medical system of routinized killing, writes physician historian Michael Burleigh, "no one was safe in the presence of the carers."
German physicians conducted numerous 'medical' experiments in the concentration camps between 1941 and the end of the war. Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician, suggested that the camps would be the perfect "laboratories" for their experiments.
Experimentation was pivotal for race hygiene, and killing could be rationalized and "treated not as murder but as healing-as a therapeutic imperative aimed at preserving the health of the one racial community which really mattered."
The physicians considered the people in the concentration camps to be the "living dead." If they served as objects of medical research, their useless lives might have some utility. If they died, nothing was lost. They were destined for death anyway, being unworthy of life.
The concentration camp doctors perfected techniques for sterilization and euthanasia. Did high doses of radiation bring about sterilization? What about new surgical techniques?
They injected people with gasoline and shocked them with electricity to see if these procedures would kill them. They took away the prisoners' food and watched to see how long it took them to starve to death.
The camp doctors used twins in many of their experiments, because twins provided a perfect built-in 'control' for each study. One twin would be injured, infected, or treated in some way and then let die. Then, the other twin was killed, so that their bodies could be compared.
The Nazis also were interested in twins because, if they could figure out how to produce more twins, the population could be restored faster.
When the doctors wanted to complete a skeleton collection at the Reich University in Strasbourg, they selected 112 healthy Jewish prisoners, photographed them, measured them, and murdered them.
They studied their bones and tissues and then sent the bodies to Strasbourg, where the flesh was removed and the skeletons put on display.
The eugenics-based horrors of the Holocaust were influenced by political, economic, social, and military factors. But it was the added factor of the Nazis' total disregard for the rights and dignity of human beings that made the Holocaust possible.
5. Eugenics: CIA Plot To Exterminate Haitian Population Exposed…
6. CIA & Pentagon eradicated incriminating records & imported Nazis steeped in eugenics…
7. CIA Agent Says War Is Eugenics & Drug War Is Fake
8. Unwanted Sterilization and Eugenics Programs in the United States…
9. Bioweapons and eugenics are still being used against us by our own government…
10. Gates Foundation Eugenics: A Secret Agenda To Send Humanity Back To The Vatican-Controlled Dark Ages?…
11. Bill Gates CIA briefing on "Funvax" releasing virus to turn off genes related to religious beliefs

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