1/ 6 quotations from: Brianna C. Delker, Carly P. Smith, Marina N. Rosenthal, Rosemary E. Bernstein & Jennifer J. Freyd, “When Home Is Where the Harm Is: Family Betrayal and Posttraumatic Outcomes in Young Adulthood”

A thread
2/ 1. “Echoing the devastation of individuals let down by institutions that they thought would protect them, survivors of child abuse have described unsupportive family reactions to abuse as 'worse than the abuse itself' (Itzin, 2005, p. 125)”

3/ 2. “In the present investigation-an extension of betrayal trauma theory beyond the dyadic victim-perpetrator relationship-we account for why victims’ family members may witness but not truly “see” child abuse. In some cases, the social and psychological costs of awareness ...
4/ "...for family bystanders may simply be too high, such as when the bystander also depends on the perpetrator (who may be a parent, grandparent, family doctor, etc.), or when the perpetrator (a religious leader, coach, teacher, physician, etc.) is celebrated and respected ...
5/ "...within the community. teacher, physician, etc.) is celebrated and respected within the community. Under such conditions, family betrayal blindness reduces the likelihood that family bystanders will confront the perpetrator or end the family’s relationship with the ...
6/ "...perpetrator. In other cases, family members may be at least somewhat aware of the abuse, but may prioritize family preservation for reasons specific to the family’s socioeconomic status, ethnic background, or cultural and religious values …
7/ "...“The dissonance between the perpetrator’s alleged harm to the child & the attitude shared by parents & community that the perpetrator is a safe, reputable person may simply be too great. ...

For instance, akin to normalization of abusive contexts within institutions, ...
8/ "...family social or cultural norms that condone violence toward others or diminish the status of women and children within family relationships increase the likelihood that child abuse will occur”
9/ 3. “After child victimization has occurred, family actions or inactions may serve as harmful responses to abuse and its effects. For instance, a relative may fail to intervene on the abuse (i.e., inaction) or disbelieve, blame, or punish a child (i.e., actions) who ...
10/ "...discloses abuse within the family. Harmful responses to child abuse may be apparently isolated-such as when a nonoffending parent disbelieves a child’s disclosure of abuse-or they may be apparently systemic, involving the whole family’s response to abuse. For instance,...
11/ "...a family narrative may develop that the child has lied about a disclosure or, if the facts of the abuse are believed, is to blame for it. In a qualitative study of adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a survivor described disclosing abuse to a family member ...
12/ "...who was close to the perpetrator and finding that 'they deny you, they start to discredit you, and turn your own family against you'"

~@dnelsong, in Delker et al., 2018
13/ 4. "The effect of family betrayal both on clinically significant degrees of posttraumatic stress and on dissociation was particularly strong. Family betrayal accounted for all of the variance in clinically significant posttraumatic stress and all of ...
14/ "...the variance in dissociation explained by victimization history of any kind. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that a self-reported history of family betrayal contributes independently and uniquely-above and beyond the effects of recent and ...
15/ "... childhood interpersonal victimization by close others—to suffering in young adulthood.”

[a thread with 6 quotes from Delker, Smith, Rosenthal, Bernstein, & Freyd, “When Home Is Where the Harm Is: Family Betrayal and Posttraumatic Outcomes in Young Adulthood”]
16/ 5. "In parallel to institutional betrayal, family betrayal occurred both leading up to & following the traumatic experiences: in this study, families failed to proactively prevent child abuse & covered up, denied, or responded inadequately to disclosures of...

17/ "...abuse, among other wrongdoings. Consistent with family betrayal trauma theory, this pattern of family responses was significantly more common when a child was victimized by someone close, than when a child experienced non-interpersonal trauma. This provides indirect...
18/ "...evidence that family “betrayal blindness” to wrongdoing by trusted others may in part motivate family betrayal. Sadly, these findings on the parallels between family and institutional betrayal suggest that both forms of betrayal are part of a larger social process of...
19/ "...denial in response to interpersonal violence. Collective trust and dependence on the perpetrator appear to be barriers to bystanders’ ability to prevent, recognize, and respond supportively to abuse.”
20/ 6. “A core prediction of this investigation was that childhood abuse would be harmful not only in and of itself, but also as a result of family betrayal. Consistent with this assumption, family betrayal history predicted increased posttraumatic distress for young adults...
21/ "...above and beyond the effect of recent and childhood interpersonal victimization. Strikingly, in the case of past-month posttraumatic stress, family betrayal history was the only significant predictor of clinically significant posttraumatic stress. More than 75% of...
22/ "...young adults in the sample who exceeded the cutoff for clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms had a history of family betrayal. Given the frequency with which family betrayal accompanied abuse by someone close to the victim (and therefore, likely...
23/ "...close to the family), this finding in particular may help to explain the enduring effects of child abuse. In particular, beyond the exposure to family betrayal at the time of abuse (or when abuse is first disclosed), family systems theory suggests that the family...
24/ "...itself may re-organize in an attempt to maintain homeostasis when exposed to a potentially disruptive force, such as abuse. Therefore, a victim of childhood abuse is likely to be repeatedly exposed to explicit or implicit reminders that their experience is ...
25/ "...inconsistent with maintaining family functioning. In keeping with research on disclosure of childhood sexual abuse, this systemic reaction could explain some of the internalized doubt that victims report."
26/ This has been 6 quotes from Brianna C Delker, Carly P Smith, Marina N Rosenthal, Rosemary E Bernstein & Jennifer J Freyd, “When Home Is Where the Harm Is: Family Betrayal and Posttraumatic Outcomes in Young Adulthood”

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More from @tripleoxymoron

18 Sep
1/ "DARVO (Deny, Attack, Reverse Victim & Offender roles) describes how perpetrators of interpersonal violence deflect blame & responsibility when confronted for their abusive behavior"
Harsey & Freyd, "(DARVO): What Is the Influence on Perceived Perpetrator & Victim Credibility?
2/ "When used, a perpetrator denies or minimizes the harms of any wrongdoing, attacks the victim’s credibility, & reverses victim and offender roles such that the perpetrator assumes a victimized position and declares the victim to be the true perpetrator."

Harsey & Freyd (2020)
3/ "This research also discovered a relationship between the perpetrators’ use of DARVO & victims’ feelings of self-blame: the more DARVO that the perpetrator used during the confrontation, the more victims reported feeling blameworthy for the wrongdoing."

Harsey & Freyd, (2020)
Read 15 tweets
2 Sep
1/ We remain blind to betrayal in order to protect ourselves. We fear risking the status quo, & thus our security, by actually knowing too much. At the same time, there are costs to our ignorance."

~Dr. @jjfreydcourage & Dr. Pamela Birrell, "Blind to Betrayal", Preface
2/ "The best way to keep a secret is not to know it in the first place; unawareness is a powerful survival technique when information is too dangerous to know."

~Dr. Jennifer Freyd & Dr. Pamela Birrell, "Blind to Betrayal", Preface
3/ "Knowledge of betrayal is always destabilizing. Whether we are the betrayers, the observers, or the betrayed, to know about betrayal is likely to provoke actions that disturb the status quo & threaten our security.

~Dr. J. Freyd & Dr. P. Birrell, "Blind to Betrayal", Preface
Read 190 tweets
13 Mar
1/ @GLSAus publicly says of Bill "Weinstein" Hybels: "sexual harassment, sexual abuse of power, this conduct is reprehensible"


Things @GLNsummit, @GLNUKI, @GLSCanada, @trdevries have never once said.

This thread will unpack "sexual abuse of power"
2/ @MichalRaphael unpacks "sexual abuse of power" in her seminal paper, based on her doctoral thesis. You can read the whole paper at bit.ly/RaphaelPHD

@WillowCreekCC @GLNsummit @trdevries this is the behaviour of founder Bill Hybels which you refuse to publicly name.
3/ "People in various professional and institutional settings endure many forms of unwanted sexual acts that are perpetrated against them by people in positions of power"

~Michal Buchhandler-Raphael

@WillowCreekCC @GLNsummit @trdevries re: Bill Hybels
Read 207 tweets
16 Feb
1/ Just found a Bill "Weinstein" Hybels book I haven't tweeted yet which I'm going to have to tweet--entitled "Honest to God". Here's the table of contents. This is gonna be crazy. Image
2/ "I've often spent time with people who simply talked or wrote about Christianity. I'd much rather spend time with people who actually live it. That's what this book is about...Being authentic Christians."

~Bill "Weinstein" Hybels, Introduction, "Honest to God"
3/ "Too often we Christians settle for inauthentic Christianity. We experience only partially the changes God can produce in our lives, and go through the motions that keep our faith lukewarm at best and make our Christian lifestyle mostly a vicarious experience."

~BWH, "H2G"
Read 206 tweets
16 Feb
Downloading @willowcreekcc's Saturday livestream so I can listen at 4X playback speed, as youtube's 2X playback speed no longer fast enough for me.

Like swallowing the poison as frickin' fast as possible.
@WillowCreekCC 2/ "It just hit me like a ton of bricks. I just started to weep."

~James Paek, doing DARVO live on the mainstage @willowcreekcc Saturday evening.
@WillowCreekCC 3/ I wonder how much Willow pays Mr. James Paek. However much it is, it's with extreme obviousness not enough, and nothing compared to the $2.5million the payed Predator Bill "Weinstein" Hybels in 2019.
Read 32 tweets
2 Feb
1/ Opening words from the @willowcreekcc Saturday evening service South Barrington:

"Good evening everyone. It's been another tough week here at Willow."

"Worship is not distracting ourselves nor escapism"

It seems appropriate the opening song is from @hillsongworship
@WillowCreekCC @hillsongworship 2/ To be clear, the leader of @hillsong is currently under police investigation for covering up child sexual abuse perpetrated by his pastor father.

I confess these @willowcreekcc vocalists, musicians, producers, are consummate professionals. Absolutely top-notch performance.
@WillowCreekCC @hillsongworship @Hillsong 3/ Words from @mattlundgren's prayer: "forgiveness, surrender, every good and perfect gift, peace, comfort, healing, wisdom, mercy, forgiveness, grace, direction, open eyes, open ears, open ears, open hearts."

"There are some germs going around--don't shake anyone's hand."
Read 35 tweets

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