@Rainbow23354027 Due to their ring structure, Bessel beams have the ability of trapping simultaneously both high and low refractive index particles in their bright rings and dark regions, respec- tively.
@Rainbow23354027 Furthermore, because of the absence of a specific fo- cus, they can trap several particles along their axis.
@Rainbow23354027 Aim higher...🤫
@Rainbow23354027 Are you blocking me Twitter?
@Rainbow23354027 Telling.
@Rainbow23354027 liposome

plural noun: liposomes
1a minute spherical sac of phospholipid molecules enclosing a water droplet, especially as formed artificially to carry drugs or other substances into the tissues.
@Rainbow23354027 artificially

adverb: artificially


by means of human intervention rather than naturally."she never wanted to be kept artificially alive with life support"
@Rainbow23354027 ◦in a contrived or false way."the presenter tried to artificially create an argument between the two"

in an insincere or affected way."I'm next to him, smiling artificially through my misery"
@Rainbow23354027 🙏🏻❤️
@Rainbow23354027 artificial intelligence

1the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
@Rainbow23354027 🕯🕊
@Rainbow23354027 Quantum dots are sometimes referred to as artificial atoms
@Rainbow23354027 Quantum dots (QDs) are man-made nanoscale crystals that that can transport electrons. When UV light hits these semiconducting nanoparticles, they can emit light of various colors.
@Rainbow23354027 These artificial semiconductor nanoparticles that have found applications in composites, solar cells and fluorescent biological labels.
@Rainbow23354027 Metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been increasingly used for various bio‐applications owing to their unique physiochemical properties in terms of conductivity, optical sensitivity, and reactivity.
@Rainbow23354027 With the extensive usage of NPs, increased human exposure may cause oxidative stress and lead to undesirable health consequences. To date, various endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidants contributing to oxidative stress have been widely reported.
@Rainbow23354027 At the biological level, NPs can initiate oxidative stress directly or indirectly through various mechanisms, leading to profound effects ranging from the molecular to the disease level.
@Rainbow23354027 Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities.
@Rainbow23354027 Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction,
@Rainbow23354027 and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation,
@Rainbow23354027 and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP.
@Rainbow23354027 Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed.
@Rainbow23354027 Oxidative stress may play a role in the development of a range of conditions, including:
•Alzheimer's disease.
•Parkinson's disease.
•cardiovascular conditions such as high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and stroke.
@Rainbow23354027 inflammatory disorders.
•chronic fatigue syndrome.
@Rainbow23354027 Overproduction of free radicals can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, (lipids, proteins, DNA), eventually leading to many chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis,
@Rainbow23354027 cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation, stroke ...
@Rainbow23354027 Evidence is accumulating that most of the degenerative diseases that afflict humanity have their origin in deleterious free radical reactions.
@Rainbow23354027 These diseases include atherosclerosis, cancer, inflammatory joint disease, asthma, diabetes, senile dementia and degenerative eye disease.
@Rainbow23354027 Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of free radicals and the antioxidant system, which is in charge of keeping the homeostasis of the organism (Betteridge, 2000).
@Rainbow23354027 A free radical is an atom or group of atoms that has an unpaired electron and is therefore unstable and highly reactive.
@Rainbow23354027 ... Free radicals form when one of these weak bonds between electrons is broken and an uneven number of electrons remain. This means the electron is unpaired, making it chemically reactive.
@Rainbow23354027 A pair of coupled quantum dots can share an electron between them, forming a qubit. ... The two sets of rings for the electrons now behaved as if they were weakly coupled quantum dots.
@Rainbow23354027 When the quantum dots are illuminated by UV light, an electron in the quantum dot can be excited to a state of higher energy.
@Rainbow23354027 The excited electron can drop back into the valence band releasing its energy by the emission of light.
@Rainbow23354027 When the electron returns to a lower level, the atom emits a photon of light with the same energy that the atom originally absorbed.
@Rainbow23354027 Light-gated ion channels are a family of ion channels regulated by electromagnetic radiation. Other gating mechanisms for ion channels include voltage-gated ion channels, ligand-gated ion channels, mechanosensitive ion channels, and temperature-gated ion channels.
@Rainbow23354027 Most light-gated ion channels have been synthesized in the laboratory for study, although two naturally occurring examples, channelrhodopsin and anion-conducting channelrhodopsin, are currently known.
@Rainbow23354027 Photoreceptor proteins, which act in a similar manner to light-gated ion channels, are generally classified instead as G protein-coupled receptors.
@Rainbow23354027 Light-gated ion channels function in a similar manner to other gated ion channels. Such transmembrane proteins form pores through lipid bilayers to facilitate the passage of ions.
@Rainbow23354027 These ions move from one side of the membrane to another under the influence of an electrochemical gradient. When exposed to a stimulus, a conformational change occurs in the transmembrane region of the protein to open or close the ion channel.
@Rainbow23354027 In the specific case of light-gated ion channels, the transmembrane proteins are usually coupled with a smaller molecule that acts as a photoswitch,
@Rainbow23354027 whereby photons bind to the switching molecule, to then alter the conformation of the proteins, so that the pore changes from a closed state to an open state, or vice versa, thereby increasing or decreasing ion conductance.
@Rainbow23354027 Retinal is a good example of a molecular photoswitch and is found in the naturally occurring channelrhodopsins.
@Rainbow23354027 Once channelrhosopsin had been identified and characterized, the channel's ion selectivity was modified in order to control membrane potential through optogenetic control.
@Rainbow23354027 As such, optogenetics is a neuromodulation method that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control the activities of individual neurons in living tissue—even within freely-moving animals. 🤔
@Rainbow23354027 In some usages, optogenetics also refers to optical monitoring of neuronal activity[1] and control of biochemical pathways in non-neuronal cells,[2] although these research activities preceded the use of light-sensitive ion channels in neurons.
@Rainbow23354027 [3][4] As optogenetics is used by some authors to refer to only optical control of the activity of genetically defined neurons and not these additional research approaches,[5][6][7] the term optogenetics is an example of polysemy.
@Rainbow23354027 Neuronal control is achieved using optogenetic actuators like channelrhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and archaerhodopsin, while optical recording of neuronal activities can be made with the help of optogenetic sensors for calcium (GCaMPs), vesicular release (synapto-pHluorin),
@Rainbow23354027 neurotransmitters (GluSnFRs), or membrane voltage (Quasars, ASAPs).[8] Control (or recording) of activity is restricted to genetically defined neurons and performed in a spatiotemporal-specific manner by light.
@Rainbow23354027 A nematode expressing the light-sensitive ion channel Mac.

Mac is a proton pump originally isolated in the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans and now expressed in the muscle cells of C. elegans that opens in response to green light and causes hyperpolarizing inhibition.
@Rainbow23354027 Of note is the extension in body length that the worm undergoes each time it is exposed to green light, which is presumably caused by Mac's muscle-relaxant effects.
@Rainbow23354027 🤷🏼‍♂️
@Rainbow23354027 In a method for adjusting the voltage potential or pH of, or cause proton release from, cells, subcellular regions, or extracellular regions, a gene encoding for a light-driven proton pump is incorporated into at least one target cell or region,
@Rainbow23354027 the proton pump operating in response to a specific wavelength of light. Expression of the gene is caused by exposing the target cell or region to the specific wavelength of light in a manner designed to cause the voltage potential adjustment, pH adjustment, or proton release.
@Rainbow23354027 The proton pump may be a microbial rhodopsin, in particular derived from the halorubrum genus of archaeabacteria, or be derived from leptosphaeria maculans, P. triticirepentis, and S. scelorotorium.
@Rainbow23354027 The voltage potential of the target cell or region may adjusted until it is hyperpolarized in order to achieve neural silencing. Light-activated proton pumps responsive to different wavelengths of light may be used together to achieve multi-color neural silencing
@Rainbow23354027 Arch and Mac represent members of a new, diverse, and powerful class of optical neural silencing reagent, the light-driven proton pump, which operates without the need for exogenous chemical supplementation in mammalian cells.
@Rainbow23354027 The efficacy of these proton pumps is surprising, given that protons occur, in mammalian tissue, at a millionfold-lower concentration than the ions carried by other optical control molecules.
@Rainbow23354027 This high efficacy may be due to the fast photocycle of Arch, but it may also be due to the ability of high-pKa residues in proton pumps to mediate proton uptake.
@Rainbow23354027 Several facts were discovered about this class of molecules that point the way for future neuroengineering innovation. First, proton pumping is a self-limiting process in neurons, providing for a safe and naturalistic form of neural silencing.
@Rainbow23354027 Second, proton pumps recover spontaneously after optical activation, improving their relevance for behaviourally-relevant silencing over the class of halorhodopsins.
@Rainbow23354027 Finally, proton pumps exist with a wide diversity of action spectra, thus enabling multiple-color silencing of distinct neural populations.
@Rainbow23354027 Structure-guided mutagenesis of Arch and Mac may further facilitate development of neural silencers with altered spectrum or ion selectivity, given the significant amount of structure-function knowledge of the proton pump family.
@Rainbow23354027 These opsins are likely to find uses across the spectrum of neuroscientific, biological, and bioengineering fields.
@Rainbow23354027 For example, expression of these opsins in neurons, muscle, immune cells, and other excitable cells will allow control over their membrane potential,
@Rainbow23354027 opening up the ability to investigate the causal role of specific cells' activities in intact organisms, and opening up the ability to understand the causal contribution of such cells to disease states in animal models.
@Rainbow23354027 Proton pump is a membrane-integrated enzymatic complex which is able to mobilize protons to generate a proton gradient across the membrane.
@Rainbow23354027 ... The electron transport chain in cell respiration generates an electrochemical potential which is coupled to the proton pumps located in the membrane.
@Rainbow23354027 In cell respiration, the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane space.
@Rainbow23354027 It is an active pump that generates a proton concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane because there are more protons outside the matrix than inside.
@Rainbow23354027 Proton, stable subatomic particle that has a positive charge equal in magnitude to a unit of electron charge and a rest mass of 1.67262 × 10−27 kg, which is 1,836 times the mass of an electron.
@Rainbow23354027 The protons inside an atom's nucleus help bind the nucleus together. They also attract the negatively charged electrons, and keep them in orbit around the nucleus. The number of protons in an atom's nucleus determines which chemical element it is.
@Rainbow23354027 Proton pumps are a special kind of transporter that push hydrogen ions from areas of low concentration to areas with high concentration. Ions moving down a gradient release energy, but when they move up a gradient, it takes energy.
@Rainbow23354027 Diffusion can then use this gradient to capture energy again, as the ions move downhill.
@Rainbow23354027 A proton pump is an integral membrane protein pump that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane. Proton pumps catalyze the following reaction:
[on one side of a biological membrane] + energy ⇌ H+
[on the other side of the membrane]
@Rainbow23354027 Mechanisms are based on energy-induced conformational changes of the protein structure or on the Q cycle.
@Rainbow23354027 The Q cycle (named for quinol) describes a series of reactions that describe how the sequential oxidation and reduction of the lipophilic electron carrier, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10),
@Rainbow23354027 between the ubiquinol and ubiquinone forms, can result in the net movement of protons across a lipid bilayer (in the case of the mitochondria, the inner mitochondrial membrane).
@Rainbow23354027 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_cycle


During oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen in redox reactions.

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togetherhood (uncountable)
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