1/n #SadarPranam to Ishvara within you @irfhabib ji.

Will you call work of #IrfanHabib in regards to Mughals? Because his works don’t say so great about Akbar & Mughals as you portray.

Here are some citations from his works & other Scholars.

You may respond with Substance!
2/n I’m first quoting from book “The Cambridge Economic History of India” edited by T Raychudhuri & Irfan Habib in regards to few economic troubles to Indians by Mughals. Read on.
3/n Irfan Habib gives account of money hoarding at large scale by Mughal Emperors including Akbar.

He quotes De Laet who mentions Akbar’s treasure to be ~522.4 million florins & Sarista Khan to have hoarded ₹380 million.

Was economy blooming?

Snippet pg 183
4/n Irfan Habib further talks of one way flow of wealth during Mughal Reign, ie :from outer provinces to the central parts of Empire.

He states: The Mughal Empire was a machine to extract resources...

An that’s how wealth of Golconda was drained.

Details in Snippet: Pg 184
5/n Irfan Habib quotes Ovington, for stating how “Baniyas” had to keep wealth secret fr them not to become wealth of Moghul officers.

Snippet: pg 185
6/n rfan Habib further talks about extortion & tendency to not return loan taken from merchants.

The merchants were always lived in fear of showing the wealth they had.

Snippet: pg 186

Definitely life of merchants was horrible in Mughal period.
7/n Irfan Habib further quotes Fryer to talk about the corruption @ the clerical level.

He says:besides Zakat(1/14th of travellers’ income)heavy toll tax was imposed. It’s a myth that Aurangzeb had removed toll tax.He quotes Thevenot to talk about excessive toll.
Snippet: Pg187
8/n He further writes on pg 188 that besides Jiziya, duty of 5% was imposed on Hindus while Muslims paid only 2.5%. This was evil intention of Aurangzeb as he wanted more Hindus to be converted.
9/n Not to forget Irfan Habib quotes Ovington on pg189 to explain that Hindus were often treated with inhumanity & neglect, bcoz of their adhesion to the principles of a religion which is different from that of the state.

This was happening under the Mughal reign.
10/n Irfan Habib categorically mentions wars & Mughal desire to conquer as major reason for economic failure of India, followed by their own decline. Moreover the tyranny of the governors was causing Merchants to shut business.

Following snippets explain at best(p192-95).
11/n Now @irfhabib let me mention another book which I believe u won’t call as crap.

People appreciate Akbar for better tax system.

But records say otherwise.

“Akbar’s taxes were highest”.

Ref: Muslim Civilization in India
by S. M. Ikram
edited by
Ainslie T. Embree
12/n @irfhabib now I’m citing Francois Bernier, who explains disgraceful Mughal Character.

“When the Ambassadors came to the court of Aurangzeb, they weren’t given enough respect for their gifts were considered cheap.” Ref: Pg 133-34, (book in snippet 3)
13/n Francois Bernie mentions in further pages that though Mughals found the gift of “Slaves” worth & paid coins worth 20k francs, for they knew it would be utilised in Indian market itself for it was not useful in Ethiopia.

In short no “gold or silver” came as practice.

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More from @Aabhas24

27 Sep
Read “Fatahmama-I-Chittor” & “Fatawa-e-Alamgiri” & come back.

Why Abul Fazl mentions that Akbar killed 200 cows & sprinkled their blood all over Temple? This was Islamic Moral? Was it Islamic moral that Akbar rewarded badauni as he expressed desire to soak beard in Hindu blood?
Kashmir was completely Hindu. Bulla Shah triggered the idea of forced conversions followed with Sikander the idol-breaker. Today how much Hindu ethnicity is left in Kashmir? Islamic Morals?
Who triggered Direct Action Day? The mass massacres, rapes of Hindus in Calcutta? Read about 16 August 1946.

It was Islamic Morals?
Read 4 tweets
26 Sep
#SadarPranam to Ishvara within you !

Let’s start from school time!

Who gave “Akbar” title to “Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad” as per Akbarnama?
Then @CMarrewa wants me to chose Richard Eaton over SR Goel after lecturing in earlier tweet that I’m picking western perspective.

Have you ever read what are primary sources of SR Goel? They all are assertions of Muslim Historians & Inscriptions on Mosques. Visit Qutub Minar
@CMarrewa is so fond of Eaton who couldn’t go beyond 80 temples & hasn’t even mentioned Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, where inscription itself talk of 27 Temple destruction.

If I begin to critique Eaton’s work it would be full of RED markings all over.
Read 8 tweets
20 Sep
Sanatana Dharma never carry contempt for Religions around just for a plain reason—Former is like great (to the power of ♾) grandfather to origin of latter.

It‘s not Man-Made. Man made “dams”(limitations)but someone else made flowing water(freedom). Dharma frees,religion ties!
But when religion came, it had to fight with its biggest adversaries & Dharma was biggest of all. Dharma wanted people to worship “East” for sun, but religion wanted to define worship for opposite.

Existence of Religion thrives on weakening of Dharma but Dharma is immortal.
Even if you create multiple dams (religion) how will you stop nature of water to flow (dharma)?

Even if they push to convert whole humanity to Religions, the nature, the primary Santani will mock them with catastrophes.
Read 4 tweets
19 Sep
1/n #SadarPranam to Ishvara within you @_YogendraYadav ji.

I'm sorry to say but you have no idea about how Communists had supported Communal Violence around 1946-47.

I mention same in this thread which you may respond should you have enough substance.
2/n @_YogendraYadav ji, if I refer to "Brothers Against the Raj", Hashim the secretary of the Muslim League, the key man behind the rise of Suhrawardy, mentions in his memoir, "Let Us Go To The War", that he had help from Nikhil Chakravartti a young communist. Read.
3/n Not to forget, Hashim calls himself an "Islamic Socialist".
Read 7 tweets
14 Sep
1/n #SadarPranam to Ishvara within you @_sabanaqvi ji.

While you defend @UmarKhalidJNU , here in this thread I put a bit of truth which makes me conclude he was a Terrorist in making & your opinion is wrong.

U may answer should u have enough substance.
2/n The google search about @UmarKhalidJNU brings this page for you.

A Human Rights Activist. Really? Let’s inspect more by quoting Dr Ambedkar.

“The brotherhood of Islam is not the universal brotherhood of man. It is brotherhood of Muslims for Muslims only.
3/n one can observe in this video clearly that @UmarKhalidJNU asked people to come on street when @POTUS visits Delhi on Feb 24, 2020
Read 14 tweets
12 Sep
1/n #Atheist#Nastika

I explain in this thread.

In early ancient Greek, the adjective átheos was used as a term of condemnation largely meaning "impious".
2/n Comes 5th Century BC, átheos began to indicate more deliberate and active godlessness with perspective of "severing relations with the gods" or "denying the gods".
3/n Then came the term term "asebēs"applied against those who denied or disrespected the gods of particular locality, even if they believed in other gods. In modern translations of classical texts átheos is mentioned as "atheistic".

Source: Atheism in Pagan Antiquity
by ABD
Read 12 tweets

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