Bacteria-fighting neutrophils in the URT ⬆️ risk of viral infections. Implications are huge, pinpointing a potential unifying mechanism. In metabolic diseases a similar elevation of activated neutrophils occurs. What about periodontitis in severe COVID-19? imperial.ac.uk/news/206253/ba…
From the study:
“those who resisted infection showed a transient boost in mucosal markers of innate immune activation for several days after viral administration and no subsequent viral replication.”
In the meantime everybody is obsessed with antibodies circulating in the arms?
Two major components of mucosal immunity largely ignored in respiratory infections. SIgA is the other one:
“Prior RSV-specific nasal IgA correlated significantly more strongly with protection from [PCR-]confirmed infection than serum neutralizing antibody”
atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rc…
Based on feedback, some people may need to start with a quick/crash course to respiratory/mucosal immunity. I’ve only run through this one, but looks sufficient.
greaterimmunity.com/Files/respirat…

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More from @gerdosi

24 Aug
1/ Below is a perfect example of how we can fall victim of our presumptions, and why understanding underlying mechanisms, or when applicable, design/evolution, is fundamentally important.
This is about water in the door of my car.
2/ Were you aware that (rain, washing, etc.) water is can normally get into the doors of a car and leave through exit holes at the bottom?
Quite obviously, I wasn’t.
I'm not a completely theoretical person, yet I just didn't know about this. It cost me about 2 hours.
3/ I assumed, or more precisely, I was confident that the several liters (~1 gallon) of water wobbling in the left rear door was the result of a faulty section in the insulation. Nothing else even came to my mind that could've altered my approach to fix the problem.
Read 4 tweets
5 Aug
Short thread.
If you’re not through COVID-19 yet I really hope that you’ve spent the last couple of months preparing for it. Losing beer belly, being out in the sun, and eating nutrient dense, fat soluble vitamin-rich foods. Definitely don’t rely only on vaccines if you’re…
…(metabolically) obese. Why? By now, it’s clear that obese are not only susceptible to more severe COVID, but also to influenza.
➡︎ Overweight and obese adult humans have a defective cellular immune response to pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.10…
What’s more, vaccines don’t work quite as well in obese people as in the (metabolically) healthy. See e.g.
➡︎ Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans
nature.com/articles/ijo20…
Read 4 tweets
24 Jul
This is not the first study that identifies obesity as the single biggest factor that is associated with progression to pneumonia in COVID-19. The authors suggest hyperleptinemia as the underlying mechanism.
The immunomodulatory functions of leptin next… medrxiv.org/content/10.110…
2 reviews
Leptin in inflammation and autoimmunity sciencedirect.com/science/articl…

Leptin as an immunomodulator sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
A bit more recent and more specific,
“leptin also signals through the Jak/STAT and Akt pathways, among others, to modulate T cell number and function. Thus, leptin connects metabolism with the immune response.“
nature.com/articles/s4136…
Read 4 tweets
24 Jul
Immunocompromised people can get severely ill or even die of infections with cold coronaviruses. Eventually, immune function/suppression falls on a spectrum and has various causes. Advanced age and hormonal imbalances are typical examples, the latter observed in e.g. T2 diabetes. Image
"This study shows that all known non-SARS HCoVs can be found in stools of children with acute gastroenteritis."
Infection of the digestive system is not unique to SARS coronaviruses, although HCoVs are usually not the main pathogens that cause diarrhea. sciencedirect.com/science/articl…
Infecting the central nervous system has also been described, sometimes with nasty effects. Image
Read 5 tweets
16 Jul
Nasal immunization could be the most efficient and potentially least harmful against coronaviruses, in line with the primary role of the mucosal barrier in providing protection. cell.com/immunity/fullt…
“mortality in 12- to 22-month-old mice infected with SARS-CoV or IAV was reduced from 80 to 100% to 0 to 10% by treatment with a TLR3 agonist, poly(I·C), with concomitant increased expression of interferon (IFN) and other proinflammatory molecules”
jvi.asm.org/content/86/21/…
Looking at systemic antibody levels in connection with respiratory infections is counterproductive. Let’s focus on healthy physiology/basic (mucosal) immunology, instead of centering on traditional vaccinations.
jvi.asm.org/content/77/21/…
Read 6 tweets
8 Jul
I keep hearing that SARS-CoV-2 is not like the flu, it’s a totally different virus. Well, can you spot the differences & similarities? I highlighted the most important commonality, i.e. how they typically kill.
mdpi.com/1999-4915/12/4…
sciencedirect.com/science/articl… ImageImage
The majority of SARS transmissions was linked to hospitals (intubation and ventilation as prime suspects) and to superspreading events. Sounds familiar? Why did it not to our infectious disease experts?
sciencedirect.com/science/articl… Image
Read 4 tweets

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