@lauferlaw Not according to US military doctrine.

Information Operations, including cyber attacks, are the integrated employment, during military operations, of information-related capabilities (IRCs) in concert with other lines of operation to influence, disrupt,
@lauferlaw corrupt, or usurp the decision making of adversaries and potential adversaries while protecting our own. The informational dimension specifies where and how information is collected, processed, stored, disseminated, and protected.
@lauferlaw The cognitive dimension encompasses the minds of those who transmit, receive, and respond to or act on information. IRCs are the tools, techniques, or activities that affect any of the three dimensions of the information environment.
@lauferlaw The joint force (means) employs IRCs (ways) to affect the information provided to or disseminated from the target audience (TA) in the physical and informational dimensions of the information environment to affect decision making.
@lauferlaw IO is not about ownership of individual capabilities but rather the use of those capabilities as force multipliers to create a desired effect. There are many military capabilities that contribute to IO and should be taken into consideration during the planning process.
@lauferlaw These include: strategic communication, joint interagency coordination group, public affairs, civil-military operations, cyberspace operations (CO), information assurance, space operations, military information support operations (MISO), intelligence, military deception,
@lauferlaw operations security, special technical operations, joint electromagnetic spectrum operations, and key leader engagement. Department of Defense (DOD) and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) directives delegate authorities to DOD components.
@lauferlaw Among these directives, Department of Defense Directive 3600.01, Information Operations, is the principal IO policy document. Its joint counterpart, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 3210.01, Joint Information Operations Policy, provides joint policy
@lauferlaw regarding the use of IRCs, professional qualifications for the joint IO force, as well as joint IO education and training requirements. Based upon the contents of these two documents, authority to conduct joint IO is vested in the
@lauferlaw combatant commander (CCDR), who in turn can delegate operational authority to a subordinate JFC, as appropriate.

Cyber attacks are tools of information operations.
@lauferlaw An act of war involves the use of force for political purposes by or against a state. Force involves violence or threatened use of force. If there is no violence, it is not an attack. If there is no threat of violence, it is not the use of force. csis-website-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/le…

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More from @DeMelaatse

13 Oct
This is why history must not be erased. Theodore Roosevelt did more than ride in a seal vehicle while suffering a respiratory viral infection. 🙄

On October 14, 1912, John Flammang Schrank shot Roosevelt once in the chest with a .38-caliber Colt Police Positive Special revolver.
The bullet lodged in Roosevelt's chest only after hitting both his steel eyeglass case and a 50-page copy of his speech titled "Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual", which he was carrying in his jacket pocket.
Elbert Martin, one of Roosevelt's secretaries, was the first to react, leaping at Schrank, wrestling him to the ground and seizing his gun. A. O. Girard, a former Rough Rider and bodyguard of the ex-president, and several policemen were upon Schrank at the same moment.
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13 Oct
After every sortie, pilots (P) reports “squawks,” or issues with the jet. Solutions are recorded on the Squawk Sheet by the Crew Chief (C).

Actual Squawks

P: Left inside main tire almost needs replacement.
C: Almost replaced left inside main tire.
P: Test flight OK, except auto-land very rough.
C: Auto-land not installed on this aircraft.

P: Something loose in cockpit
C: Something tightened in cockpit

P: Dead bugs on windshield.
C: Live bugs on back-order.
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C: Cannot reproduce problem on ground.

P: Evidence of leak on right main landing gear.
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P: DME volume unbelievably loud.
C: DME volume set to more believable level.
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26 Sep
@JoeBiden At this moment, let’s do science!

COVID19 Deaths: 203,180 (covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tra…)

Cardiovascular Deaths: (23,328,000 [timeanddate.com/date/durationr…] ÷ 36 [cdc.gov/heartdisease/f…]) = 648,000

You’re 3.1893-times more likely to die of heart disease than COVID.
Let’s do more science!

The mean mass of the Earth’d dry air mass is x̅5.1352 × 10¹⁸ kg. (journals.ametsoc.org/jcli/article/1…)

That’s: 5,135,200,000,000,000,000 kg
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Trace gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and ozone account for 0.01%, of the Earth’s atmosphere. (climate.ncsu.edu/edu/Composition)
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18 Sep
@mikeandersonsr 🤔...The @PortlandPolice (Portland Bureau of Police), is the law enforcement agency of the city of Portland, Oregon. Captain Don here, has 10.8K followers with 13 tweets since 2017.
@mikeandersonsr @PortlandPolice Captain Don might have a 150 Year badge, but he’s doesn’t have a PPB badge nor the correct patch.
@mikeandersonsr @PortlandPolice Captain Don is following no LE accounts, but a lot of Russian accounts.
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10 Sep
Sergeant William Harvey Carney was an American soldier during the Civil War. Born a slave, he received the Medal of Honor in 1900 for gallantry in saving the American flag during the Battle of Fort Wagner in 1863.

cc: @Kaepernick7
The action for which he received the Medal of Honor preceded all other African American Medal of Honor recipients; however, his medal was actually one of the very last to be awarded for Civil War service. African Americans received the Medal of Honor as early as April 1865.
William Harvey Carney was born a slave in Norfolk, Virginia, on February 29, 1840. How he made his way to freedom is not certain. According to most accounts, he escaped through the Underground Railroad, and joined his father in Massachusetts.
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30 Aug

@CDC quietly published a study showing up to 66.2% of #COVID19 deaths were comorbidity fatalities.

The current total COVID19 Case Fatality rate is ((181,143 ÷ 5,890,532) × 100) = 3.075%. (covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tra…)
The study concludes up to 66.2% of COVID19 fatalities are geriatric patient fatalities with comorbidity factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. (cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…)
The study source (cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…) concludes up to 66.2% of COVID19 fatalities were comorbidity (already dying).

Comorbidity deaths may be as high as 181,143 × 0.662 = 119,917.

Leaving direct COVID19 fatalities of 181,143 - 119,917 = 61,946
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