Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (US) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a wavefunction can propagate through a potential barrier.
Quantum tunneling plays an essential role in physical phenomena, such as nuclear fusion. It has applications in the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and in the scanning tunneling microscope.
A resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) is a diode with a resonant-tunneling structure in which electrons can tunnel through some resonant states at certain energy levels. The current–voltage characteristic often exhibits negative differential resistance regions.
All types of tunneling diodes make use of quantum mechanical tunneling. Characteristic to the current–voltage relationship of a tunneling diode is the presence of one or more negative differential resistance regions, which enables many unique applications.
Tunneling diodes can be very compact and are also capable of ultra-high-speed operation because the quantum tunneling effect through the very thin layers is a very fast process.
One area of active research is directed toward building oscillators and switching devices that can operate at terahertz frequencies.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are graphene nanoparticles with a size less than 100 nm.
Due to their exceptional properties such as low toxicity, stable photoluminescence, chemical stability and pronounced quantum confinement effect, GQDs are considered as a novel material for biological, opto-electronics, energy and environmental applications.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) consist of one or a few layers of graphene and are smaller than 100 nm in size.
The research team headed by Peter Wick, Tina Bürki and Jing Wang from Empa and Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser and Barbara Drasler from AMI recently published their first results in the journal Carbon.
Thanks to the 3-D lung model, the researchers have succeeded in simulating the actual conditions at the blood-air barrier and the impact of graphene on the lung tissue as realistically as possible – without any tests on animals or humans.
Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Lower production of ROS by currently available theranostic agents, e.g. magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanostructures or polymeric nanoparticles, restricts their clinical application in cancer therapy.
Oxidative stress induced by graphene accumulated in living organs is due to acellular factors which may affect physiological interactions between graphene and target tissues and cells.
Acellular factors include particle size, shape, surface charge, surface containing functional groups, and light activation.
Changes in redox homeostasis in infected cells are one of the key events that is linked to infection with respiratory viruses and linked to inflammation and subsequent tissue damage.

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