@Light2020To Omnidirectional phased array antennas... ultrasound.
@Light2020To In this study, ultrasound-mediated cavitation of microbubbles was investigated as a mean of enhancing the delivery of a liposome designed for chemo-radionuclide therapy targeted to EGFR overexpressing cancer.
@Light2020To Method: Liposomes (111In-EGF-LP-Dox) were prepared by encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and surface functionalisation with Indium-111 tagged epidermal growth factor.
@Light2020To Human breast cancer cell lines with high and low EGFR expression (MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 respectively) were used to study selectivity of liposomal uptake, subcellular localisation of drug payload, cytotoxicity and DNA damage.
@Light2020To Liposome extravasation following ultrasound-induced cavitation of microbubbles (SonoVue®) was studied using a tissue-mimicking phantom.
@Light2020To In vivo stability, pharmacokinetic profile and biodistribution were evaluated following intravenous administration of 111In-labelled, EGF-functionalised liposomes to mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-468 xenografts.
@Light2020To Finally, the influence of ultrasound-mediated cavitation on the delivery of liposomes into tumours was studied. Results: Liposomes were loaded efficiently with Dox, surface decorated with 111In-EGF and showed selective uptake in MDA-MB-468 cells compared to MCF7.
@Light2020To Following binding to EGFR, Dox was released into the intracellular space and 111In-EGF shuttled to the cell nucleus. DNA damage and cell kill were higher in MDA-MB-468 than MCF7 cells. Moreover, Dox and 111In were shown to have an additive cytotoxic effect in MDA-MB-468 cells.
@Light2020To US-mediated cavitation increased the extravasation of liposomes in an in vitro gel phantom model. In vivo, the application of ultrasound with microbubbles increased tumour uptake by 66% (p<0.05) despite poor vascularisation of MDA-MB-468 xenografts (as shown by DCE-MRI).
@Light2020To Conclusion: 111In-EGF-LP-Dox designed for concurrent chemo-radionuclide therapy showed specificity for and cytotoxicity towards EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.
@Light2020To Delivery to tumours was enhanced by the use of ultrasound-mediated cavitation indicating that this approach has the potential to deliver cytotoxic levels of therapeutic radionuclide to solid tumours.
@Light2020To Keywords: Ultrasound-Enhanced Delivery, Radionuclide Therapy, Chemotherapy, Breast Cancer, Liposome.
@Light2020To The ability to enhance the immune response of vaccines by certain compounds was first demonstrated with aluminum salts, termed ‘adjuvants’, added to killed or attenuated pathogens.
@Light2020To Absolute stupidity.
@Light2020To Evil.
@Light2020To The chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection.
@Light2020To The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an enveloped virus that follows a membrane fusion strategy to access and activate the replication cycle within the cytoplasm of host cells, typically CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage1.
@Light2020To Host cell recognition and fusion with its plasma membrane is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env)2. Furthermore, the physical properties and chemical composition of the HIV membrane play a key role in the entry process3,4.
@Light2020To While much is known about the mechanistic and structural details of Env-mediated fusion5,6, the functional organization of membrane lipids is less well understood.
@Light2020To Membrane lipids are a group of compounds (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer). The three major classes of membrane lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol.
@Light2020To Lipids are amphiphilic: they have one end that is soluble in water ('polar') and an ending that is soluble in fat ('nonpolar').
@Light2020To By forming a double layer with the polar ends pointing outwards and the nonpolar ends pointing inwards membrane lipids can form a 'lipid bilayer' which keeps the watery interior of the cell separate from the watery exterior.
@Light2020To The arrangements of lipids and various proteins, acting as receptors and channel pores in the membrane, control the entry and exit of other molecules and ions as part of the cell's metabolism.
@Light2020To In order to perform physiological functions, membrane proteins are facilitated to rotate and diffuse laterally in two dimensional expanse of lipid bilayer by the presence of a shell of lipids closely attached to protein surface, called annular lipid shell.
@Light2020To Annular lipids (also called shell lipids or boundary lipids) are a set of lipids or lipidic molecules which preferentially bind or stick to the surface of membrane proteins in biological cells.
@Light2020To They constitute a layer, or an annulus/ shell, of lipids which are partially immobilized due to the existence of lipid-protein interactions.
@Light2020To Polar headgroups of these lipids bind to the hydrophilic part of the membrane protein(s) at the inner and outer surfaces of lipid bilayer membrane. The hydrophobic surface of the membrane proteins is bound to the apposed lipid fatty acid chains of the membrane bilayer.
@Light2020To For integral membrane proteins spanning the thickness of the membrane bilayer, these annular/shell lipids may act like a lubricating layer on the proteins' surfaces,
@Light2020To thereby facilitating almost free rotation and lateral diffusion of membrane proteins within the 2-dimensional expanse of the biological membrane(s). Outside the layer of shell/annular lipids, lipids are not tied down to protein molecules.
@Light2020To However, they may be slightly restricted in their segmental motion freedom due to mild peer pressure of protein molecules, if present in high concentration, which arises from extended influence of protein-lipid interaction.
@Light2020To Membrane areas away from protein molecules contain lamellar phase bulk lipids, which are largely free from any restraining effects due to protein-lipid interactions.
@Light2020To Thermal denaturation of membrane proteins may destroy the secondary and tertiary structure of membrane proteins, exposing newer surfaces to membrane lipids and therefore increasing the number of lipids molecules in the annulus/shell layer.
@Light2020To This phenomenon can be studied by the spin label electron paramagnetic resonance technique.
@Light2020To A spin label (SL) is an organic molecule which possesses an unpaired electron, usually on a nitrogen atom, and the ability to bind to another molecule.
@Light2020To Spin labels are normally used as tools for probing proteins or biological membrane-local dynamics using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) technique allows one to monitor a specific region within a protein.
@Light2020To In protein structure examinations, amino acid-specific SLs can be used.
@Light2020To The goal of spin labeling is somewhat similar to that of isotopic substitution in NMR spectroscopy. There one replaces an atom lacking a nuclear spin (and so is NMR-silent) with an isotope having a spin I
≠ 0 (and so is NMR-active).
@Light2020To This technique is useful for tracking the chemical environment around an atom when full substitution with an NMR-active isotope is not feasible.
@Light2020To Recently, spin-labelling has also been used to probe chemical local environment in NMR itself, in a technique known as Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement (PRE).
@Light2020To Recent developments in the theory and experimental measurement of PREs have enabled the detection, characterization and visualization of sparsely populated states of proteins and their complexes.
@Light2020To Such states, which are invisible to conventional biophysical and structural techniques, play a key role in many biological processes including molecular recognition, allostery, macromolecular assembly and aggregation.
@Light2020To Spin labelled fatty acids have been extensively used to understand dynamic organization of lipids in bio-membranes and membrane biophysics. For example, stearic acid labelled with nitroxyl spin label moiety at various carbons (5,7,9,12,13,14 and 16th)
@Light2020To with respect to first carbon of carbonyl group have been used to study the flexibility gradient of membrane lipids to understand membrane fluidity conditions at different depths of their lipid bilayer organization.
@Light2020To Membrane biophysics is the study of biological membrane structure and function using physical, computational, mathematical, and biophysical methods.
@Light2020To A combination of these methods can be used to create phase diagrams of different types of membranes, which yields information on thermodynamic behavior of a membrane and its components.
@Light2020To As opposed to membrane biology, membrane biophysics focuses on quantitative information and modeling of various membrane phenomena, such as lipid raft formation, rates of lipid and cholesterol flip-flop,
@Light2020To protein-lipid coupling, and the effect of bending and elasticity functions of membranes on inter-cell connections.
@Light2020To •Lipid polymorphism
•Protein–lipid interaction
•Lipid rafts
•Biological membrane
•Membrane potential
•Trigger zone
@Light2020To In neuroscience and neurology, a trigger zone is an area of the body, or of a cell, in which a specific type of stimulation triggers a specific type of response.
@Light2020To I’m glad to see that Mr Trump won the election! 👍🏻
@Light2020To (Pharmaceutical: Drugs)
A controlled-release drug or preparation is released into the body in specified amounts over a specified period of time.
The controlled-release system is designed to release the drug's active ingredient gradually over the day.
@Light2020To These antidepressants provide controlled-release medication throughout the day or over a week.
A controlled-release drug or preparation is released into the body in specified amounts over a specified period of time.
@Light2020To verb (used with object)

to fire or explode (a gun, missile, etc.) by pulling a trigger or releasing a triggering device: He accidentally triggered his rifle.
@Light2020To Liposomes have been well established as an effective drug delivery system, due to simplicity of their preparation and unique characteristics. However conventional liposomes are unsuitable for the on-demand content release, which limits their therapeutic utility.
@Light2020To Here we report X-ray-triggerable liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and photosensitizer verteporfin.
@Light2020To The 6 MeV X-ray radiation induces verteporfin to produce singlet oxygen, which destabilises the liposomal membrane and causes the release of cargos from the liposomal cavity.
@Light2020To F the deep state!

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More from @NotTheMacAnon1

17 Nov
By Vangie Beal. Abbreviation for terahertz. A unit of measurement of frequency, also known as cycles per second. One TeraHertz (THz) is equal to 1012 (10 to the power of 12)hertz (Hz) or one thousand gigahertz (GHz). See also Hz.
Researchers from Hiroshima University and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology in Japan have announced the development of a terahertz (THz) transmitter
Read 24 tweets
16 Nov
The nature of man on Earth was formed after the nature of things in Heaven, and man had all things contained as potential within
himself, except divine life.

But he was as yet an untrained, undisciplined child, still nurtured simply upon the comforting bosom of Earth.
Read 35 tweets
16 Nov

Graphene quantum dots



Read 14 tweets
15 Nov
We should ban quantum dots all together.
Stop the vaccine cycles.
Read 8 tweets
15 Nov
Graphene atomic structure with a translational vector T and a chiral vector Ĉh of a CNT
A highly effective method of delivering carbon nanotubes into cells is Cell squeezing, a high-throughput vector-free microfluidic platform for intracellular delivery developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the labs of Robert S. Langer.
Virtually any type of molecule can be delivered into any type of cell.
Read 12 tweets
13 Nov
Applying pressure is a more general term than pushing, and is basically anything that prevents the enemy from simply doing whatever they want.
Ultrasound is defined by the American National Standards Institute as "sound at frequencies greater than 20 kHz". In air at atmospheric pressure, ultrasonic waves have wavelengths of 1.9 cm or less.
Read 27 tweets

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