N=959 asymptomatic people enrolled in SMILE trial from Sept 2019-March 2019, samples tested via RBD specific ELISA assay

111 (11.6%) plasma samples showed #SARS_CoV_2 RBD-specific antibodies (IgM, IgG or both)
—> 97 (10.1%) had IgM antibodies
—> 16 (1.7%) had IgG antibodies
2/ Patients displaying IgG or IgM antibodies, or both:
23/162 (14.2%) in September
27/166 (16.3%) in October

Sept 3 - 1st positive sample (IgM-positive) recorded in the Veneto region

Sept 4 - 1 case in Emilia Romagna
Sept 5 - 1 case in Liguria
Sept 9 - 2 cases in Lombardy
3/ End of September, the 23 +samples recorded in:
- 13 (56.5%) in Lombardy
- 3 in Veneto
- 2 in Piedmont
- 1 in Emilia Romagna,
- 1 in Liguria
- 1 in Lazio
- 1 in Campania
- 1 in Friuli

Lombardy was the region most affected by the #COVID19 pandemic, with 5791/10,141 (57.1%) pts
4/ Also interesting, of the 959 patient samples:
- 491 (51.2%) were residents of Lombardy

Furthermore, of the 111 positive cases:
- 59 (53.2%) were in residents of Lombardy

Evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 functional neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) was performed on all 111 samples
5/ ...using qualitative cytopathic effect (CPE)–based live virus microneutralization assay:

6/111 samples were also positive for functional anti-SARS-CoV-2 NAbs:
- 4 in October [2 (7th), 1 (8th) & 1 (21st)]
- 1 in November
- 1 in February
*3 of these samples were from Lombardy
6/ First tweet should have said March 2020, (coincidentally when pandemic was declared).

What does this mean?
More research is needed!

Like my suspicions of asymptomatic carriers/spread based on early available data, the origins of SARS2 merit further investigation. #COVID19

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More from @ErinSandersNP

11 Nov
To clarify, "allowing" = Forcing #COVID-positive nurses to continue to work even if exposed to a potentially deadly virus that they could infect their colleagues or patients with because our federal and state government & institutions failed us
#COVID19 #Covid_19 #coronavirus
Choose Quarantine -> Protect their families, colleagues, & patients from #COVID19 but know their teams/patients will be short staffed and that patient care/staff will be negatively impacted. No backup staffing when all states are impacted simultaneously.
No Quarantine -> Put their families, colleagues & patients at risk of #SARSCoV2 infection and #COVID19. Put their own health at risk due to further viral exposure without appropriate #PPE. High viral load is associated with more severe disease & stress impacts the immune response
Read 5 tweets
27 Oct
1/ THREAD: Healthcare Professionals continue to care for patients every day without adequate protection and put themselves, families, coworkers, patients, & communities at risk of death or significant injury from #COVID19. So, what is this new CDC DATA? 🧵
cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/6…
2/ #COVID19 Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) Database Analysis

Where: 13 states CA, CO, CT, GA, MD, MI, MN, NM, NY, OH, OR, TN, UT

When: March 1 – May 31, 2020

N = 28,972 hospitalized adult patients
→ 8,515 sampled for complete chart abstraction
3/ → 6,760 sampled cases w/ HCP status

438 = HCP identified in this sample of hospitalized adults

Inclusion criteria: ≥18 yo, +SARS-CoV-2 test result during their hospitalization OR within 14 days before admission, & hospitalized with COVID-19 during 3/1-5/31
Read 18 tweets
25 Oct
1/ THREAD: I’m obsessed with the eyes, brains, GABA, autopsies & #COVID19

Periodic reminder that I think too much and ask too many questions, and if that bothers you, I would not recommend following me!

Anywho, lots of thoughts percolating tonight...yay insomnia 🧪👩🏾‍🔬🧠🔬 👁️🦠🙃
2/ I've already written too many threads on eyeballs and #COVID19, so I'll spare you redundancy. Here was my most recent one:

The eye and a new paper re: #SARSCoV2 Nucleocapsid Protein in the Ocular Tissues of a Patient Previously Infected With COVID19
3/ So Brains...🧠

I was thinking more about that AMAZING German autopsy study in @TheLancetNeuro and how they found #SARSCoV2 by IHC in the cranial nerves [either the glossopharyngeal or vagal nerves] originating from the brainstem! #COVID19

thelancet.com/journals/laneu…
Read 21 tweets
24 Oct
1/ THREAD: Regulatory T cells, Sex Differences, Autoimmunity, & #LongCovid

T reg frequencies are shown to be lower in females following puberty suggesting a plausible reason for the gender bias of autoimmune disease. @VirusesImmunity @ImmunoFever @angie_rasmussen
2/ Foxp3 is a critical protein responsible for the development and function of Treg cells. The gene for Foxp3 is found on the X-chromosome providing a link between sex and Treg development. biorxiv.org/content/10.110…
3/ CD4+CD25(hi) regulatory T cells in healthy males and females mediate gender difference in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22783590/
Read 8 tweets
23 Oct
1/ THREAD: #SARS_CoV_2, #COVID__19, genetics, & HLA

Individual genetic variability in Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC – 6p21.3) in humans have the potential to affect susceptibility to and severity of the diseases.
#FridayThoughts Image
2/ As the main drivers of our innate immune response, genetic variation in HLA complex may help explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. HLA alleles are critical components of the viral antigen presentation pathway.

nature.com/articles/s4141…
3/ These genes code for proteins on the surfaces of cells that send signals to the immune system, & differences in these signals can cause different reactions by the immune to invading pathogens.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P…

frontiersin.org/articles/10.33…
Read 31 tweets
11 Oct
1/ THREAD: GABA, Neuro-#COVID, & the Immune System

New preprint from Drs. Tian et al @UCLA w/ cells from Dr. Stanley Perlman @uiowa raising some very interesting neuro questions that I have been obsessing over lately:

biorxiv.org/content/10.110…

@angie_rasmussen @VirusesImmunity🧠
2/ “Early GABA treatment immediately after #coronavirus MHV-1 infection was very effective in preventing illness progression and death, suggesting a rapid effect of GABA on innate immune responses and/or the lung airway cells.”

@GreenJournal @Tim_R_Nicholson @EricTopol
3/ Does GABA given to mice competitively bind to the GABA receptor (over MHV-1), which resulted in decreased viral intensity?

Does giving GABA down-regulate the neural excitation elicited by the #virus? Or interfere by another mechanism?

creative-diagnostics.com/gabaergic-syna…
@shelfarfar
Read 25 tweets

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