Spectrometrically or optically encoded microsphere based suspension array technology (SAT) is applicable to the high-throughput, simultaneous detection of multiple analytes within a small, single sample volume.
Thanks to the rapid development of nanotechnology, tremendous progress has been made in the multiplexed detecting capability, sensitivity, and photostability of suspension arrays.
In this review, we first focus on the current stock of nanoparticle-based barcodes as well as the manufacturing technologies required for their production.
We then move on to discuss all existing barcode-based bioanalysis patterns, including the various labels used in suspension arrays, label-free platforms, signal amplification methods, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based platforms.
We then introduce automatic platforms for suspension arrays that use superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based microspheres.
Finally, we summarize the current challenges and their proposed solutions, which are centered on improving encoding capacities, alternative probe possibilities, nonspecificity suppression, directional immobilization, and “point of care” platforms.
Throughout this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive guide for the design of suspension arrays, with the goal of improving their performance in areas such as multiplexing capacity, throughput, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness.
We hope that our summary on the state-of-the-art development of these arrays, our commentary on future challenges, and some proposed avenues for further advances will help drive the development of suspension array technology and its related fields.

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