I’ll always make time for @apoorva_nyc, especially about great news like this: top line trial results show safety, robust antibody production, & 100% efficacy in 12-15 year olds!
W/ the wise & wonderful @VirusesImmunity, @JenniferNuzzo, & Kristin Oliver.
Approach the efficacy data cautiously, because it was based on just 18 cases, all in the placebo group, but this is what we’d expect to see: the vaccine works in adolescents at least as well as in adults (maybe better, at least in terms of antibody responses).
While this data still needs to be evaluated by FDA and we need to see the full trial data, parents of teens can rest easier knowing their kids will likely be able to get vaccinated before school starts in the fall.
I agree with @JenniferNuzzo that kids don’t need to be vaccinated before going back to school, but this will provide peace of mind to teens and parents worried about it. It will also get us closer to herd immunity and deprive the virus of hospitable hosts in which to spread.
By getting ever closer to the herd immunity threshold through vaccination, we will be able to end the pandemic, sustainably. Overall, this is more great news on the vaccine front and I’m excited to see the full data set.

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More from @angie_rasmussen

31 Mar
BREAKING: Major and Champ Biden are dogs who do normal dog things
And all the people saying normal dogs don't poop in the house has never owned a senior dog or a pug of any age.
Also BREAKING: Ripley thinks Major and Champ seem cool and she’d like to compare indoor pooping techniques with them at some point
Read 4 tweets
30 Mar
Barely out and already my feed is filling up with (some pretty racist) complaints that this report is incomplete and dissatisfying.

But did you really expect a 2 week mission to yield a definitive answer about SARS-CoV-2 origins?

Origin investigations take years, even decades.
The purpose of this mission was really to lay the groundwork for collaborative studies moving forward.

Like it or not, that requires working cooperatively with China.

Like it or not, @WHO isn't equipped to conduct an audit of WIV's freezers or records or interrogate its staff.
This report contains some new information: about excess mortality, ILI, environmental testing, retrospective sample testing, animal testing. It also acknowledges there is a lot more to do.
Read 9 tweets
21 Mar
2 things have been troubling me lately:

1. The notion that recognizing the nuances & uncertainties of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is somehow "denying" that respiratory transmission occurs.

2. This is all @WHO's fault for giving bad guidance.

Are these true? Let's look at the data.
1. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus. That means it infects cells of the respiratory tract in both the upper (nose) and lower (lungs) airway. Naturally, this means you become infected after exposure to virus via inhalation, direct contact (droplets), or indirect contact (fomites)
Infection occurs not from exposure to purified virus, but from virus that's emitted in particles of saliva and mucus that an infected person exhales (or speaks, sings, etc).

Go outside on a cold day and breathe out. That cloud of steamy breath? Those are respiratory particles.
Read 48 tweets
19 Mar
No, you can’t. Kids being lower risk does not mean “same as an already vaccinated grandparent.”

I value other perspectives, like economics, in vaccine discussions. All are stakeholders in public health. But have the humility to know when you’ve hit the limits of your expertise.
This is insufficient. The problem wasn't just the headline. The problem is that two of the fundamental arguments are wrong.

1. Risk of infection is just as relevant as risk of disease.

2. Vaccinating only adults won't get us to herd immunity by summer.
And I should add there's another risk that wasn't addressed at all: the vaccines are not 100% effective (though they are very good). Failing to mitigate transmission risk by relying on flawed risk assessments still presents a danger, especially to more vulnerable adults.
Read 4 tweets
18 Mar
So, here's another great paper out today from my friend and colleague @DrSimonAnthony.

It will be of particular interest to those pondering possible SARS-CoV-2 origins, and viral evolution enthusiasts in general.

Brace yourself: it's about how different sarbecoviruses use ACE2.
In short: Dr. Anthony and his PREDICT colleagues found 3 isolates of a novel sarbecovirus (SARS-like betacoronavirus) in bats...from Uganda and Rwanda. Hey, that's nowhere near China, so what does that have to do with SARS-CoV-2?
A lot, actually. Sarbecoviruses are not exclusive to China or East Asia. That's where they've been studied most extensively, but they aren't restricted to that part of the world. Here's how these viruses and host bat species relate to each other and where they were discovered.
Read 19 tweets
12 Mar
The sequences from the Ebola virus outbreak in Guinea were posted on virological, and they are, to put it mildly, absolutely stunning.

The sequences are only 12-13 nucleotides different from those circulating in the 2014-2016 epidemic.

This suggests that this new outbreak resulted from transmission from a persistently infected survivor of the prior epidemic, which is bad for a whole host of reasons, including the further stigmatization of Ebola virus disease survivors.
This is also genuinely shocking to me scientifically.

Based on the known mutation rate of EBOV/Makona, we'd expect viruses that have been replicating for 5-7 years, even at low levels, to have many more mutations. Like hundreds. These have 12.
Read 8 tweets

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