@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters ➡️1) Probable, not all retroviruses cause cancer, but all RNA tumor viruses are retroviruses.
They transform an infected cell by the action of one or more genes, which are present in the viral genome and are called viral oncogenes...
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 2) RNA viruses, known as retroviruses, which can induce the neoplastic transformation of eukaryotic cells. Examples are the Rous sarcoma virus, the feline leukemia virus, the avian erythroblastosis virus, etc ...
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 3) The RNA of the virus is made up of:
👉gag = gene that codes for a precursor protein which, once cut, produces the proteins of the viral particle.
👉pol = gene that codes for reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that has the task of transcribing single-stranded RNA to
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 4) double-stranded DNA.
👉env = gene encoding the glycoproteins of the viral envelope, called envelope.

➡️For example the Rous sarcoma virus, has an additional gene called 👉v-src (which has eukaryotic origins) and finds its counterpart in👉 c-src, a gene that
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 5) is very conserved throughout the animal kingdom. C-src is a gene that regulates cell proliferation in response to mitotic stimuli; this type of genes is called proto-oncogene.

➡️If this proto-oncogene were to undergo mutations, it would turn into oncogene, that is, a gene
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 6) responsible for the uncontrolled proliferation typical of a tumor cell.
Therefore 👉v-src is precisely a mutated variant of 👉c-src, therefore when it is inserted by the virus in a cell chromosome, it stimulates the proliferation pathway, transforming the healthy
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 7) cell into a cancer cell.
This is broadly the mechanism, but the other retroviruses have not found a way to fit 4 genes within their envelope, hence the presence of a viral oncogene v-onc (such as v-src or v- erbA for the avian influenza virus) results
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 8) in the loss of one of the three genes required to complete the life cycle.
This makes them defective transforming retroviruses, i.e. retroviruses unable to complete a cycle on their own.
However, they can complete it with the help of a helper virus,
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 9) which gives them gag, pol or env. Non-transforming retroviruses (those that have only gag, pol, and env in their RNA) also have the ability to turn a healthy cell into cancerous, but with a much lower probability than transforming viruses.
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 10) ➡️The mechanisms by which this is possible are 2 and are called 👉gene activation and 👉insertional mutagenesis.

➡️ Foreword: Transformation mechanism of a transforming retrovirus. 👉When a virus infects a cell, its RNA genome is released from the viral particle along with
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 11) the reverse transcriptase. In the cellular cytosol, the enzyme synthesizes a complementary DNA strand (c-DNA), consuming the host's nucleotides.

This viral DNA is first translocated into the nucleus and then integrates into a chromosome in the following way. The 3 'and 5'
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 12) ends of the molecule contain repeated terminal sequences (LTRs), which contain numerous integration regulation signals.

Consequently, the insertion into the cell chromosome occurs as a result of the interaction of these LTRs with proteins that cut the cellular DNA.
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 13) LTR must generate messenger RNA for the synthesis, again at the host's expense, of the proteins encoded by gag, pol, env, and v-src.

➡️ Gene activation:

As they increase transcription of neighboring genes, LTRs also stimulate that of cellular genes
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 14)downstream of their location. So if we find c-src,this will be transcribed and translated in a constitutive way.
C-src encodes the protein kinase encoded by v-src,but endowed with its regulatory domain.
This is localized in the membrane and its presence stimulates mitosis.
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 15) ➡️ Insertional Mutagenesis:

This neoplastic transformation mechanism by a non-transforming virus involves the insertion of the genetic material within a cellular gene. This causes the gene affected by the insertion to lose function and consequently can
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 16) cause the cell to transform if the gene was a tumor suppressor or a mutator gene.

➡️ But there is also a👉 third mechanism produced synthetically in the laboratory.

SARS COV 2 has an unusual sequence 👉 "CCTCGGCGGGCACGT" which generates the "unknown region",
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 17) of artificial origin, between S1 / S2,👉 PRRAR motif "related to 👉modified polynucleotides for the production of 👉oncology-related 👉proteins and 👉peptides and methods 👉for improving immune control block therapy,👉 for modulation of the microbiome.
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 18) ➡️ PRRAR / S = is a cellular reprogramming code that SARS COV 2 RNA sends to cells and bacteria, for their subjugation, in a new mutant form.

👉The protein sequence 682-687 (PRRARS), in the S-type protein, is responsible for its correct binding with the
@Grace42Thorn @janieyaya @MartinaSisters 19) host proteases of 👉furin, 👉catepsin and 👉plasmin and the mutation of these residues compromises their interaction.

➡️ Biologists and biochemists already know that cleavage at the level of arginine residues is commonly used to activate a range of human proteins.

End

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4 Apr
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➡️➡️➡️ FOUND IN INDIA SARS COV 2 DOUBLE MUTANT!👇
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