Thread: I created this chart to present the internal diversity of Islam from an inclusive & pluralist lens. This is how I teach Islam in the academy. I have tried to show important branches that emerged from larger groups -even if said branches no longer identify as Muslim
The Sufi Turuq & Theological schools in this chart are NOT meant to appear as separate from Shia & Sunni, but rather, as embedded within those branches. That is why the Sufi & Kalam schools are not in boxes, since their ideas pervade many communities.
Some people are freaking out because I included Quranists, Progressives, Salafis, and Ahmadis under the Sunni umbrella. That is because, for the most part, these groups emerged from the Sunnis - even if there is debate over whether they are still Sunni.
But since Ahmadis consider themselves as Muslims, I will still include them in the visual. Same goes for other groups.
Some people think chart should ONLY include 4 Sunni Madhabs and nothing else. Well sorry, THAT is a Sunni-centric and Sunni-supremacist narrative of Islam. I do NOT teach Islam in the academy by privileging one group's theology or narrative (whether Sunni or Shia) above others.
Overall, the chart has been very successful in helping students appreciate the internal diversity that comprises Islam. Islam is not just one monolithic and static belief and ritual system. It consists of interpretations that evolve across time & space.
I should note that the legal/madhab diversity you see in this chart was agreed upon at the 2005 Aman Conference which was signed on by all major Sunni, Shia, and Ibadi scholars. The Aman Conference - which I still do not think went far enough - recognized 8 madhabs as under Islam
The main shortcoming of this chart is that it is NOT inclusive enough - so some groups like Barelwis, Deobandis, etc. are not spelled out here. There are more Tayyibi Bohra groups you cannot see. Internal differences among Twelver Shia. The list goes on. I will keep expanding it

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More from @KhalilAndani

19 May
This chart received unexpected amount of engagement. I appreciate the critiques: some are warranted & some are not. It is not a perfect chart but I stand by it as a teaching tool & starting point to show intra-Muslim diversity. Some critique I am happy to take on board: (thread)
@MM_Knight makes a good point that the chart appears to show genetic origins - as if a "Sunni" family subdivided into madhabs & other groups, which is not correct. I agree on this. Will consider a better way to capture the history.
Others noted that the visual order of Sunni madhahib do not follow chronology of their 'founders'. This is true; chart did not presume to offer a historical narrative but more of a snapshot at a time (today).
Read 8 tweets
21 Feb
.@shadihamid to ensure I don’t misrepresent you, here are parts of the book where you make descriptive claim re Muslim beliefs in the Quran as “God’s actual direct & literal speech” & that this makes Islam exceptional. What follows are my academic disagreements with you (thread):
If “Quran” means the recited Arabic sounds/letters/verses, then only Hanbalis & Mu’tazili say the Arabic Quran is God’s direct literal speech. Asharis, Maturidis, Ibn Sina, Ismailis & some Sufis believe God’s Speech is nonmaterial/uncreated & created Arabic Quran indicates to it
To be specific, Ashari & Maturidi theologians to this day say that Arabic Quran as words & verses is not God’s direct speech. It’s a created expression mediated by Gabriel or some other medium. Some believe God inspired His immaterial speech in Gabriel who then forms the words.
Read 11 tweets
21 Feb
@shadihamid with respect; your claim is not accurate. Only Hanbalis say Quran’s words (oral / written) are God’s direct uncreated speech. Asharis/Maturidis/Ismailis/Philosophers ontologically distinguish Quran’s Arabic words from God’s Speech/Word. My entire thesis is about this
Further; Ashari & Maturidi & Ismaili views of Quranic ontology affect their Quranic hermeneutics & ethical theory. See Vishanoff & Farahat’s work and mine as well
There were early Christians fathers & later Christians who do affirm verbal biblical inspiration / dictation as well. One can’t validly claim Muslims are unique in this nor can you claim Muslim inerrancy beliefs are not paralleled among Christians.
Read 6 tweets

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