This chart received unexpected amount of engagement. I appreciate the critiques: some are warranted & some are not. It is not a perfect chart but I stand by it as a teaching tool & starting point to show intra-Muslim diversity. Some critique I am happy to take on board: (thread)
@MM_Knight makes a good point that the chart appears to show genetic origins - as if a "Sunni" family subdivided into madhabs & other groups, which is not correct. I agree on this. Will consider a better way to capture the history.
Others noted that the visual order of Sunni madhahib do not follow chronology of their 'founders'. This is true; chart did not presume to offer a historical narrative but more of a snapshot at a time (today).
@DrJavadTHashmi rightly said that this chart is a good starting point but does not have "depth" in terms of showing gradients in modernist vs. traditionalist approaches even within each group. This is true: perhaps a 3D chart with shading can better show that
@FikranYusufzai observed that madhhab differences are not the same, sociologically speaking, as communal divides among the Shia nor theological disagreement in kalam. This is true; not all distinctions are of same intensity & type. I can consider showing some nuance in future
@putawaytheglobe and @MatthewJKuiper noted that we have modernists and progressives among the Shia as well. This is true - future chart can be adapted to show this fact.
Some people said my PhD was waste of time & Harvard should take it back. Why don't YOU do a PhD in Islamic studies at an Ivey league school; pass 4 written comprehensive exams & write an 800 page award-winning Ph.D thesis. Then come back & make your case that my PhD is invalid.
Ahmadis claim to be Sunni If we exclude Ahmadis, then Shia are out too as Sunni jurists takfired Shia in past. Ash'aris & Hanbalis once declared each other outside Ahl al-Sunna; some Sunnis excluded Wahhabis. Wed end up with isolated atoms each called "Islam" comprising 1 group

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More from @KhalilAndani

18 May
Thread: I created this chart to present the internal diversity of Islam from an inclusive & pluralist lens. This is how I teach Islam in the academy. I have tried to show important branches that emerged from larger groups -even if said branches no longer identify as Muslim
The Sufi Turuq & Theological schools in this chart are NOT meant to appear as separate from Shia & Sunni, but rather, as embedded within those branches. That is why the Sufi & Kalam schools are not in boxes, since their ideas pervade many communities.
Some people are freaking out because I included Quranists, Progressives, Salafis, and Ahmadis under the Sunni umbrella. That is because, for the most part, these groups emerged from the Sunnis - even if there is debate over whether they are still Sunni.
Read 8 tweets
21 Feb
.@shadihamid to ensure I don’t misrepresent you, here are parts of the book where you make descriptive claim re Muslim beliefs in the Quran as “God’s actual direct & literal speech” & that this makes Islam exceptional. What follows are my academic disagreements with you (thread):
If “Quran” means the recited Arabic sounds/letters/verses, then only Hanbalis & Mu’tazili say the Arabic Quran is God’s direct literal speech. Asharis, Maturidis, Ibn Sina, Ismailis & some Sufis believe God’s Speech is nonmaterial/uncreated & created Arabic Quran indicates to it
To be specific, Ashari & Maturidi theologians to this day say that Arabic Quran as words & verses is not God’s direct speech. It’s a created expression mediated by Gabriel or some other medium. Some believe God inspired His immaterial speech in Gabriel who then forms the words.
Read 11 tweets
21 Feb
@shadihamid with respect; your claim is not accurate. Only Hanbalis say Quran’s words (oral / written) are God’s direct uncreated speech. Asharis/Maturidis/Ismailis/Philosophers ontologically distinguish Quran’s Arabic words from God’s Speech/Word. My entire thesis is about this
Further; Ashari & Maturidi & Ismaili views of Quranic ontology affect their Quranic hermeneutics & ethical theory. See Vishanoff & Farahat’s work and mine as well
There were early Christians fathers & later Christians who do affirm verbal biblical inspiration / dictation as well. One can’t validly claim Muslims are unique in this nor can you claim Muslim inerrancy beliefs are not paralleled among Christians.
Read 6 tweets

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