Today marks the 57th anniversary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s death.
Many of those, whose lives he directly touched are still with us today.
This thread is a humble tribute to the life of a man who led #India from a feudal-colony to becoming a democratic Republic.
#Nehru 🌹
Born on 14th November 1889, in Allahabad, Pandit Nehru was educated at Harrow in England and Trinity College, Cambridge. He studied law at Inner Temple Inn, London in 1910.
In 1912 he returned to Allahabad to practise law at the Allahabad High Court as an advocate.
His father Pandit Motilal Nehru was already an established lawyer with a highly-successful practise and enjoyed a formidable professional reputation. The family lived in a palatial town-house, Anand Bhawan in Allahabad. Motilal Nehru wished to see his son succeed as a lawyer too.
#JawaharlalNehru had an abiding interest in politics and his advocacy for distressed peasantry in the Allahabad region, participation against censorship and support for Mahatma Gandhi’s civil rights movement in South Africa led to a rapid rise within the ranks of the UP Congress.
As a participant in Annie Besant’s league for Home Rule and - alongside Motilal Nehru and others - an architect of the Lucknow Pact of 1916 espousing Hindu-Muslim unity, #Nehru joined the All India Congress Committee and was seen as one of the radical voices within the party.
He was a leading activist in the Non-Cooperation Movement which began in 1920 and led the momentum within UP, alongside leaders like GB Pant and others. In 1921 he was jailed, one sentence in a series of prison terms that would see him spend a total of 9 years in various prison.
In 1927 came the Congress party’s resolution - despite Mahatma Gandhi’s disapproval - demanding Independence for India. The AICC under the Presidentship of Dr. MA Ansari ratified this historic resolution which was passed at the historic Madras Congress.
In 1929, Nehru was the prime architect of the “Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy" of the AICC, which was adopted by the Congress party in 1931 under Sardar Patel’s Presidentship. This formed a skeletal basis of what would become the Constitution of the Republic of India.
#Nehru was re-elected President of Congress in 1936 and despite his objections, the Party contested the provincial elections of 1937, making substantial gains. He also worked very closely with Subhash Chandra Bose in this period and later as General Secretary.
In 1940, the Muslim League led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah passed what came to be known as “the Pakistan Resolution”. This was strongly opposed by Pandit Nehru who launched a civil disobedience movement against the British in October that year, for which he was promptly imprisoned.
With the passing of the Quit India Resolution on 8th August 1942, by Congress, the entire Working Committee of the party was imprisoned for the duration of the Second World War.
Pandit Nehru, along-with Maulana Azad and Sardar Patel were jailed in the Ahmednagar Fort.
The British government eventually ceded to the demand for Independence and the Cabinet Mission of 1946 was empowered to discuss terms for the Transfer of Power.
Against this background #Nehru and the Congress leadership were released from prison for the 1946 Provincial Elections.
The Provincial Assemblies in turn elected the members of the central Constituent Assembly within which Congress secured a majority. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was elected the interim Prime Minister.
Despite strong opposition from Congress and Nehru personally, the British Government - hurried by the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten - released a plan for the Partition of India on the 3rd of June, 1947.
Nehru accepted it as he said, “with no joy in my heart”.
With Independence, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru took oath as the first Prime Minister of an independent India on the 15th of August 1947. A link to his iconic “Tryst with Destiny” speech addressed to India’s Constituent Assembly is given below.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was 58 years old as he became Prime Minister.
A decade of his life had gone in imprisonment, against the background of two world wars and a lifetime spent in a non-violent struggle against British Imperialism, communal violence and the partition of India.
Within the Congress Party Nehru he faced innumerable challenges, from his colleagues regarding the path India should take, with many led by Rajendra Prasad and Sardar Patel advocating a different approach. Through sheer force of personality and public support Nehru succeeded.
On 30th January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by a gunman owing allegiance to the Right-wing RSS.
Nehru observed “the light has gone out of our lives”.
Yet, this numbing incident reconciled Patel with Nehru, as the former realised the danger India’s Right-wing posed.
1950-1952 were busy years as #Nehru saw the adoption of the Indian Constitution into law, was elected President of the #Congress Party and faced independent India’s first elections, in 1952.
Many in the interim cabinet contested these elections on their own party platforms.
The #Congress Party won 364 seats of the 489 seats to the Lok Sabha and polled 45% of the popular vote.
Pandit Nehru was elected MP from the seat of Allahabad East-Jaunpur West. Following delimitation this seat would form part of the Phulpur Lok Sabha, which he later represented.
As Prime Minister, #PanditJawaharlalNehru focused on developing India’s industrial manufacturing base, transitioning from a feudal-colonial society into a secular parliamentary democracy, strengthening the agricultural sector and providing basic infrastructure for health...
...his advocacy for non-alignment with a world polarised between the USSR and USA also made him a global world leader committed to the principles of global peace and led to the launching of the Non-Aligned Movement, joined by many newly independent states.
Pandit #Nehru’s achievements can hardly be adequately listed here, but a good indicator of these are basic indices in the standard of living of Indian citizens over the course of his premiership.
• Life expectancy in 1950 was 33.94, which rose to 42.94 at the time of his death.
• Economic (Real) Growth Rate went from 2.33% in 1950 to 7.58 in 1964.
• Manufacturing as part of GDP went from 8.98% in 1950 to 14.23% by 1965.
• Poverty rate of 65% in the 1950’s reduced to between 41-44% in the 1960’s.
• Literacy rose from 16.67% in 1950 to 24.02% in 1960.
Despite his towering personality and political unassailability, Pandit #Nehru waged a lonely battle - often against his own colleagues in Congress - to keep India a secular democracy and its Constitution sacrosanct.
In 1950, he wrote to GB Pant, then CM of UP the following:
“We have laid down in our constitution that India is a secular state. That does not mean irreligion. It means equal respect for all faiths and equal opportunities for those who profess any faith...”
Pandit Jawaharlal #Nehru
5 July, 1961. JN Papers, NMML
“Are you, young men and women going to dare to think and dare to act? Are you prepared to stand shoulder to shoulder... not only to free your country from an insolent and alien rule but also to establish in this unhappy world of ours a better and a happier society?”

A link to a rare film on the life of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India’s first Prime Minister, who passed away on 27th May, 1964.

The nation bids its first Prime Minister a heartfelt farewell.
No choreography, no IT Cell, no Social Media required to enhance participation at the mammoth funeral.

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More from @yusufpore

26 May
My wishes to those observing #BuddhaPurnima today, which marks the birth of the #Buddha in the 6th century BC.

#Buddhism once wielded significant influence across India. This #thread explores some of the reasons for the #DeclineOfBuddhism in India, and its attempts at a revival.
#Buddhism grew out of a reformist urge to radically reinvent Brahmanical-Hinduism, and reached the peak of its influence under the Mauryan Empire (323 BC-185 BC).
The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, embraced Buddhism as his personal faith, almost 300 years after the birth of the #Buddha.
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Though certainly exaggerated, Buddhist accounts describe mass slaughters and persecution.
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16 May
As promised, here is a bibliographical thread of books recommended - as introductory readings - for anyone interested in the life & reign of the Emperor #Aurangzeb Alamgīr (R.A.).
Some of these include suggestions with relevant essays related to his life.
#History #Mughals #books
The Ruka’āt-i-Alamgīri is a collection of his letters to members of the Imperial family, #Mughal noblemen and others.
A must read for anyone interested in an assessment of the Emperor as a family patriarch, administrator and ruler. Easy to read and available to order online.
Sir Jadunath Sarkar’s 5 volume biography of the Mughal Emperor “The History of Aurangzib” also has an abridged version by that prodigious #historian. I recommend this abridged version - readily available - for beginners. A critical assessment of his life but essential reading.
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15 May
Shakha level research yields sub-standard history. Particularly when you copy-paste items off the internet, instead of applying historiographical methodology.
Let us bust this provocative assertion on the basis of historical relevance, and accuracy.

Enjoy! 😊
#History 🧵
As usual Mr Bharadwaj has failed to give sources.
For those interested, the source is “The Travels of Ibn Battuta Vol III”, translated by the Orientalist Sir Hamilton Gibb.
Curiously, our pamphleteer appears to have lifted the screenshot from a post by someone else on Pinterest!
It is also a post he puts up annually, like a ritual, to degrade a festival sacred to Muslims. However some of these end up being deleted, with the links not working. Yet, the same blasted post features every year; year on year.
Read 15 tweets
24 Apr
Right-wing influencers continue to lie to the public over the #CoronaPandemic mismanagement in India.
Here @KanganaTeam deliberately misleads people by suggesting the setting up of #oxygen plants was the responsibility of state governments. The truth is different.
The Union Government took a full 8 months to just invite bids for tenders to set up oxygen plants in India.
An investigation by journalists @VijaytaL and @psychia90 for @scroll_in, revealed the autonomous CMS Society under @MoHFW_INDIA only opened bidding on 21st October 2020!
The entire project from start to finish, was the responsibility of the Union Government, and State governments had nothing to do with it!
Furthermore the budget outlay, (from the PM CARES Fund), was a relatively paltry sum of ₹201.58 crores.
@CMOMaharashtra @AUThackeray
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23 Apr
India’s far-Right Supremacists move in predictive ways their propaganda to propound.
Mr. @Abhina_Prakash - a Right-wing academic - made the following claims, about #AIIMS.
Let us examine these claims and ‘feather’ the truth around the sophistry displayed here.

#Thread #FakeNews
Using a table from Wikipedia as his source, he claims former PM Dr. Manmohan Singh “will not be judged kindly” as he only established 1 AIIMS in his 10 year tenure as PM.
The obfuscation between “Announcement” with “Establishment” is of course a deliberate ploy, as we shall see.
The Vajpayee led NDA merely “announced” the establishment of the 6 AIIMS listed in the table, during Vajpayee’s last 15th August speech at Red Fort, 6 months before 2004 LS elections.
Cabinet approval for the AIIMS was only given by Dr. Manmohan Singh’s government, in 2006!
Read 8 tweets
20 Apr
Today marks the 495th anniversary of the first Battle of #Panipat, fought between a Timurid army led by Zaheer-ud Din Mohammad #Babur and the Afghan king Ibrahim Lodi.
This engagement had a profound impact on the #history of the Indian sub-continent and Islamicate Asia.

The Lodis were the 5th of a succession of Islamic dynasties (collectively known as the Delhi Sultanate) that had ruled Delhi since 1206, for more than 300 years prior to Babur’s advance upon it, in 1526. Until then he had merely raided as far as the frontiers of the Punjab.
#Babur, like other Timurids before him, felt a legitimate claim on Hindustan after its conquest in 1398-99 by Temür, which effectively ended the already tottering Tughlaq Sultanate following the fall of Delhi.
Not until 1451 and the rise of the Lodis, did Delhi recover.
Read 17 tweets

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