Is everyone becoming more liberal?

Since 1989, Protestant & Catholic countries show growing support for individualism, gender equality & freedom of speech.

Orthodox & Muslim countries maintain traditional values.

by @PlamenAkaliyski & Welzel…
Protestant countries always scored more highly on 'emancipative beliefs'

Catholic countries rapidly converged (some faster than others, eg Spain vs Italy)

Ex-Communist countries that historically belonged to Western Christianity have also converged.
Personally, I'm a little sceptical about attitudinal surveys.

Their data suggests that since 1989 Turkey has become more conservative.

But quant & qual data rising urban female employment & more consensual, democratic family relations.
I'm no Whig, I certainly don't think liberalism is inevitable, but I'm reluctant to make strong inferences about what actually happens in homes, firms, markets, and political gatherings based on how someone answers a multi-choice survey.
A wealth of evidence *does* support their argument that deep roots mediate the rate of social change, even controlling for wealth

Methodologically, I just think we need to study a range of data in each country to gauge whether it has become more socially conservative since 1989.
Deep roots:

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More from @_alice_evans

10 Jun
🇹🇷 may be my favourite country to learn about.

Diverse perspectives, topics, & research methods. This ofc is due to its wealth & anglophone, liberal universities.

Comparative often, asking why Turkey differs from EU & MENA.

This breadth means one is continually challenged! 🧐
Turkish research seems very heterogenous in terms of disciplines:

there’s a wealth of work from anthropology, political science & economics.

So one is continually pushed to see things differently, explore & engage with alternative approaches.

It’s fabulous!
Published research is more limited in countries that are too poor to sustain thriving universities.

So I often turn to phd theses (which have proved invaluable!!)

But still, there is less, certainly less by citizens of that country, & that narrows my understanding.
Read 4 tweets
9 Jun
Has Turkey become more patriarchal?

My take

When trying to join EU, Gov ceded to ♀️ mobilisation & enacted egalitarian laws. Absent this incentive, Gov appears more patriarchal

Pol & economic liberalisation strengthened conservatives

But society is becoming more egalitarian
So many claim "Turkey has become more socially conservative"

But I struggle to find any evidence of this

Rather, once conservative groups are now more influential, &

Gov. no longer has an incentive to pay lip-service to equality

Turkish friends, I welcome your views here!!
Economic liberalisation led to the rise of the “Anatolian tigers”

Entrepreneurs in historically conservative cities (like Konya) became wealthier & more politically influential. They vote AKP

But even Konya has not become more patriarchal over time, as far as I can discern?
Read 12 tweets
7 Jun

Is there any society that you think has become MORE patriarchal over the past 50 years?

e.g. women have less economic or physical autonomy, less mobility, fewer positions of seniority & leadership, more controlled by male guardians, & increasingly seen as inferior?
Iran has become more patriarchal, some reply, pointing to short skirts in the '70s

But those were the urban elite

Society in general has become more gender equal: more women work outside the home, gain seniority, choose their husbands & collectively resist patriarchal practices ImageImageImage
Authoritarian clerics have certainly repressed activism & slowed progress

But if you look at nationally representative employment statistics or read longitudinal ethnographies, patriarchal restrictions have weakened

Female employment is higher now than in '78.
Read 4 tweets
27 May
1) Excite students, make them THIRSTY for knowledge
2) Centre your course on big, fascinating questions
3) Frequent feedback b4 grading
4) Team-based learning
5) Nurture self-belief

—> deep learners + adaptive experts

I love this book by @KenBain1
Academics, I strongly recommend this book!

I definitely concur with @KenBain1's suggestion to centre the course on exciting questions.

I also set weekly questions, with feedback, but no grades.

And I organise my students into 3s to discuss before the seminar. It really helps!
The book underscores the need to cultivate deep fascination - so that students read more, engage, and seek out alternatives.

We can do this by catalysing excitement!

I hope it's not too much if I share that this is the number one thing students emphasise about my teaching.
Read 6 tweets
16 Apr
Just seen my student evaluations, which are pleasing

Here's what worked:

- Tiny textbooks helped them understand core debates
- Audio guides to papers taught critical analysis
- Weekly individual feedback
- Pair discussions b4 class enabled them to share ideas
- Wild enthusiasm
I've also been hunting for platforms that enable students to share ideas.

But actually we don't need it.

My students use and like Whatsapp!

It's their own space, without my surveillance.

They share interesting links & talk about international development together!
Re: pair discussions.

A lot of research shows that students improve by learning with peers, sharing ideas, explaining things to each other, considering alternatives.

This connection is esp important now, given isolation

But my first years may have been hesitant to reach out..
Read 7 tweets
15 Apr
What shaped the spread of Islam?

Muslims shared their religion through long-distance trade.

Muslim communities are more common near pre-Islamic trade routes & in pastoral communities, ecologically similar to the Arabian peninsular.… Image
Muslim representation is closely correlated with both pre-Islamic trade routes & ancestral pastoralism

Michalopoulos et al suggest this Arabs would have likely migrated to places where camels provided an advantage & where they could harness their skills as pastoralists.
Geography shapes religion

This is important for our understanding of gender

Studies finding that Muslim societies are more patriarchal may be neglecting the underlying influence of pastoralism.

That said, Michalopoulos et al have another paper exploring this interconnection...
Read 8 tweets

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