What absolute ROT!
Every Mughal emperor ruled under the jurisdiction of Hanafi fiqh, and their decisions with regard their non-Muslim subjects are an exceptional model for how Islamic law can apply in a state with non-Muslim subjects.
The Ottomans had little to no influence…
…in matters to their East and the wealth of the Mughal empire dwarfed that of the Ottomans and the Safavids combined.
As for Din-e-Ilahi - any serious/specialised historian working on the subject will inform you - no such thing existed. It is based on a singular mistranslation…
…of the text of the Akbarnāma.
Akbar challenged the authority of the Ulema to give decisions about state politics through the Infallibility Decree (Mahzarnāma) of 1579.
Similarly, the Ulema in Ottoman lands was subject to the authority of the state; the Daulat-e-Aaliya-Osmania.
So to say that “none of the Mughal Kings…or Awadj (sic) Nawabs ruled by Islamic principles or for Muslims” is not only jihālat, it is a dangerously foolish argument to propagate, at a time when the entire curriculum of history is being “saffronised” afresh.

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More from @yusufpore

2 Jul
Neither Mr. Jinnah nor any other leader was unique in recognising the threats posed by Hindutva. The Mahasabha and it’s affiliates likely hated Gandhi more than any other individual. It did not require a “visionary” to see this, by any means! So @asadowaisi is correct.
The creation of Pakistan was by no means uncontested. Mr. Jinnah was never - not even in parts of what came to comprise Pakistan - the sole voice of India’s Muslims. Punjab was firmly Unionist, until 1942 and further, Princely States like Arcot did not even consider his politics.
Minority rights in India have always been open to debate and the problems of under representation continue, and have been exacerbated under the present regime. Again, the avowed intent of the present regime is what it is, but we continually confront that through democratic means.
Read 10 tweets
29 Jun
How many know that albeit briefly, the @iumlofficial once had a Chief Minister of its own?
C. H. Muhammad Koya was CM of Kerala from 12th October 1979 until the 1st of December 1979.
He also held the portfolios for Home, Finance, Education both before and after his CM’ship. Image
The first Muslim Chief Minister in India was M.O.H. Farook Maricar; the youngest ever CM of any UT in India and was a 3-time CM of Puducherry, (then Pondicherry), first in 1967.
He also served as Union Minister in Congress governments and was Ambassador and Governor many times. Image
The longest serving Muslim Chief Minister of any state of the Union was Congress leader, Barkatullah Khan Saheb of Jodhpur. He was elected CM of Rajasthan in 1971 and served in that position, until his death in office in 1973. Image
Read 8 tweets
25 Jun
No Muslim should be made to feel apologetic about their personal political affiliation, outside of the right-wing or parties whose avowed and manifest intention is to erase Islam from India.
Every region, state, locality of our country has its own particular political dynamics…
…and as equal citizens of the Democratic Republic of India it is our right to participate robustly and our responsibility to strengthen democracy in society.
One of the means to do this is to participate as much as possible in democratic processes, such as elections and…
…remain active in the decision-making processes of as many political parties and forums as possible.
Political representation for us cannot become isolated, and the prejudices of a few must not stop us from being equal negotiators and participants in the internal politics…
Read 6 tweets
27 May
Today marks the 57th anniversary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s death.
Many of those, whose lives he directly touched are still with us today.
This thread is a humble tribute to the life of a man who led #India from a feudal-colony to becoming a democratic Republic.
#Nehru 🌹
Born on 14th November 1889, in Allahabad, Pandit Nehru was educated at Harrow in England and Trinity College, Cambridge. He studied law at Inner Temple Inn, London in 1910.
In 1912 he returned to Allahabad to practise law at the Allahabad High Court as an advocate.
His father Pandit Motilal Nehru was already an established lawyer with a highly-successful practise and enjoyed a formidable professional reputation. The family lived in a palatial town-house, Anand Bhawan in Allahabad. Motilal Nehru wished to see his son succeed as a lawyer too.
Read 29 tweets
26 May
My wishes to those observing #BuddhaPurnima today, which marks the birth of the #Buddha in the 6th century BC.

#Buddhism once wielded significant influence across India. This #thread explores some of the reasons for the #DeclineOfBuddhism in India, and its attempts at a revival.
#Buddhism grew out of a reformist urge to radically reinvent Brahmanical-Hinduism, and reached the peak of its influence under the Mauryan Empire (323 BC-185 BC).
The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, embraced Buddhism as his personal faith, almost 300 years after the birth of the #Buddha.
The Shunga Dynasty (185 BC-73 BC) that succeeded the Mauryans sought to displace their influence. #Buddhism came under severe stress, particularly under the first Shunga monarch Pushyamitra.
Though certainly exaggerated, Buddhist accounts describe mass slaughters and persecution.
Read 15 tweets
16 May
As promised, here is a bibliographical thread of books recommended - as introductory readings - for anyone interested in the life & reign of the Emperor #Aurangzeb Alamgīr (R.A.).
Some of these include suggestions with relevant essays related to his life.
#History #Mughals #books
The Ruka’āt-i-Alamgīri is a collection of his letters to members of the Imperial family, #Mughal noblemen and others.
A must read for anyone interested in an assessment of the Emperor as a family patriarch, administrator and ruler. Easy to read and available to order online.
Sir Jadunath Sarkar’s 5 volume biography of the Mughal Emperor “The History of Aurangzib” also has an abridged version by that prodigious #historian. I recommend this abridged version - readily available - for beginners. A critical assessment of his life but essential reading.
Read 6 tweets

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