1. Aum Namo Bhagavathe Sri Krishnaya |

Most of you might remember I used to teach Samskrit as twitterstream years ago. In this Janmashtami I want to pick up one chapter and retweet that stream. It was titled as SANSKRIT LESSON – 11
2. Today’s Sanskrit Lessons deals with धातुरहस्य (Dhāturahasya) – The secret of root sounds.
a. The Origin of the Language – An Indian Perspective
b. The System of Seed Sounds
3. c. Sanskrit – A Mantric Language. Ultimately, धातुरहस्य (Dhāturahasya) is rooted in the whole concept of Mantra.
d. Deeper spiritual significances of Seed Sounds – बिजाक्षर (Bijakshara) and बिजमन्त्र (Bijamantra) Mechanism of word derivation from the root sounds.
4. e. Activity sessions on discovering the root sounds.
f. How to understand scriptures with the help of root sounds (not just a mental understanding) but by getting in to its spirit.
5. It is extremely difficult to get into the spirit of the scriptures without delving deeper into the roots and the fundamental experiences associated with each of those sounds.
6. If one does not do that, then it can lead to interpreting the scriptures quite differently, and eventually fail to bring out the coherence between what is said and what is meant (not the surface meaning, but stemming from the experiences behind the sounds).
7. This is the main reason why we find multitude of interpretations for a given scripture.

So, how do we understand the secret of languages and in-turn understand ourselves and the world?
But, why ourselves?
8. This is because the entire aim of education in the ancient times is all rooted in the vision of the Rishis that the sole aim of education is आत्मानं विद्धि (AAtmanam Viddhi) – Know thyself.
9. If you study Panini’s text which is extremely technical or Vaatsyaayana’s Kamasutra , or any text on Vaastu Shastra or any books even on Physics, Chemistry, you will find that they have never deviated from this whole aim of आत्मानं विद्धि (AAtmanam Viddhi) – Know thyself.
10. In Panini’s text, the philosophy of creation, the philosophy of Self and the language, the technique, the Grammar, the very way of presentation always are hand-in-hand and completely in harmony with each other.
11. Before we approach study of any language, we need to understand that every language has its own स्वभाव (Svabhava – Intrinsic Nature), स्वधर्म (Svadharma – Unique Natural behaviour) and its own spirit or चैतन्य.
12. Just as every language has its own स्वभाव and स्वधर्म and चैतन्य, so does Sanskrit. In the schools and institutes, where the language is taught formally, the first thing they do is teach the structure of the language – its grammar, parts of speech etc…,
13. But they fail to dive deeper without giving any sense on the स्वभाव and स्वधर्म of the language itself.

At present, whatever the ancient Rishis have communicated using their language is difficult to understand if we simply follow the mental understanding of it, i.e.,
14. by accepting the language in a very formal way (without diving deep into its स्वभाव and स्वधर्म).

It will then look very different, and thus will leave a huge gap.
15. However, if one enters in to the spirit of the language, by understanding the स्वभाव and स्वधर्म, then one can observe that there is a continuum in the language since its beginning.
16. This has been maintained by Sanskrit through the times despite Vedic Sanskrit being different from Classical Sanskrit.

Feeling the language will make the learning easier than doing it formally. Patanjali says – एकः शब्दः सम्यग्ज्ञातः सुप्रयुक्तः स्वर्गे लोके च काम धुग भवति|
17. “Though you may know one word, know it well, use it in the right sense, at the right place and with the right attitude.”
18. If one feels this consciousness, the experiences and the force behind the sound, then you have achieved much more than the scholar who is fluent in Sanskrit, who can explain the shlokas, but is devoid of the feel for the spirit of the language.
19. Sanskrit has been designed for self-realization, in fact, it’s the language of self-realization. Studying Sanskrit in its right way is to take up the Sadhana of self-realization, it is आत्मानं विद्धि the vision of seers and sages.
20. Now, let us look at the features of Sanskrit:
a. Each word is self-explanatory.
b. It is a property-based language.
c. It is an inflectional language.
Let us dwell on each.
21. (i). Each word is self-explanatory: The first thing that anyone learns in a language are words. Have you ever wondered why a particular word is used in a particular sense?
22. Most of the times we take it for granted, we don’t even ask this question. Lets look at English and take up the word – Hand.
23. If we ask someone, do you know the meaning of the word Hand? Chances are you will be ridiculed. Its called Hand because it’s a Hand. Don’t you know that?
34. So, basically you are not allowed to ask this question – Why a hand is called hand? You may find an answer when you look at the history of the language.
25. The last numbering must be 24 and not 34. Sorry for the typo.

Words in English are by and large imported from other languages or they have evolved out of convention that became sufficiently strong in use.
26. For words that have evolved out of convention lack the inherent significance, that is, they are not self-explanatory. However, this is not true with Sanskrit and languages derived directly from Sanskrit.
27. In Sanskrit, each and every word is self-explanatory. Sometimes, you don’t have to refer to dictionary! If you have a good introduction to the Dhātus (धातु), to the root sounds and the senses behind them, you don’t need to refer to dictionary every-time.
28. The word itself will explain you why it stands for a particular object or an idea. This is the first important feature of the language.

(ii). (Eka) mean? ऐक (Eka) does not mean one as a mathematical value, but it means the property of being one.
29. In which form ऐक (Eka) can be used? Is it singular, dual or plural? ऐक (Eka) means singular, but in Sanskrit we find plural form for ऐक (Eka) is ऐके (Eke). For example, the usage of singular form would be – ऐक: बालक: पठति (A boy is reading).
30. We can also form sentence with plural form as – ऐके बालका: पठन्ति (A group of boys are reading). One can grasp this only when one looks at it as a property. They have maintained the property of being one – as a group, as a unit or unity or harmonious aspiration as a group.
31. So it means there is one group of boys doing certain action (in our case reading). When you pick up any entity from the same group, they represent the same thing, this is ऐके. This how we explain that though there are many boys, the property of being one is not lost.
32. In a general sense, one can use ऐके where you have many maintaining the property of being a single unit.

Similarly one can have singular form of सर्व (Sarva means all) and the plural form as सर्वे (Sarve) – it is the property of being all but taking care of the multiplicity.
33. When one deals with this as property then only this can be explained. To understand we need to look at the property it describes and not the object. To enter into the property one has to go deep, decode, analyze and get into the root sound.
34. Getting into the root sound is the first step and then there are subsequent steps to get into the spirit of the root sounds. A mere knowledge of root sound will not help to get into the deeper aspect of the language.
35. (iii). It is an inflectional language.: There are many inflectional languages all over the world, Sanskrit is one of them. Comparatively Sanskrit probably has the highest degree of inflection.
36. Due to this high degree of inflection, Sanskrit instills a deep sense of freedom of expression to its users. One is free to use existing words (as experienced by other people), however, one is not bound to use them.
37. Users can also create their own words (based on the their experience with the object). Further, the user is free to use the language in a way one wants, that is, one is not bound to follow the subject-predicate structure.
38. The user can put the subject anywhere they want, they can put the object anywhere they desire. There is no formal word order in Sanskrit.
39.However don’t take it as a वेद वाक्य (Gospel in English), there are a few situations where the word order in a sentence needs to be respected. So, Sanskrit as a language of freedom and consciousness.
40. Now 99% of the Sanskrit is available as a poetry…science, mathematics, literature etc…poetry is the very soul of this language. In poetry there is no word order, so you need an अन्वय (anvaya).
41. Anvaya refers to the logical connection of words, as to how different words relate with each other to convey a significant meaning or idea.
42. Main aim of अन्वय is to arrange the words following the sequence of ideas flowing as thoughts. Its purpose is to decode, enter into the mind of the poet and grasp the spirit behind the thought. अन्वय (Anvaya) = अनु (Anu) + वय (Vaya).
43. Anu means to follow and Vaya means to weave. If you observe closely, अन्वय prepares your mind for the realisation of what is behind a particular verse.

This is the secret of the mantras, sounds, and verses in Sanskrit.
44. It prepares the mind for realization by following the train of thoughts like this and realize the spirit of what is being said. However, it is not to be misused for converting poetry to prose.
45. If you are a beginner in Sanskrit (like me!) and you just have words to express your idea, then you simply arrange them the way in which you think without worrying about the order.
46. You simply put the words anywhere you want. For example, you want to say the boy goes to the school in the morning. You can translate this sentence like this – बालक: (The boy) गच्छति (goes) विद्यालयम् (to the school) प्रात:काले (in the morning).
47. Now in other languages you will not be allowed to put words in any order. However, in Sanskrit you can put words as it appears in your train of thoughts. So if you happen to go from right to left instead, you can say –
48. प्रात:काले (in the morning) विद्यालयम् (to the school) गच्छति (goes) बालक: (The boy) and it is perfectly valid.

If you happen to spot words randomly to gather the meaning of the sentence you can also say –
49. गच्छति (goes) विद्यालयम् (to the school) बालक: (The boy) प्रात:काले (in the morning). Again this is perfectly valid Sanskrit. You simply put down the words in any order and express your idea.
50. This to me is a big wow, because we spend so much time re-arranging our words to form a meaningful sentence to convey our idea.

So, this flexibility & freedom that Sanskrit allows works with the train of thought and not against the train of thought as with other languages.

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