#OnThisDay November 24, 1958 The US Supreme Court allowed Alabama to evade mandates to integrate its schools. This was a case filed by civil rights icon Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth.

Don't know about Shuttlesworth v. Board of Education?

Glad you asked. #GladYouAsked
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth is one of this nation's most under valued civil rights icons. Don't know about Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth? Glad you asked.⬇️

After the Brown decision, white supremacy wasn't going down - if it's ever even been down - without a fight. To prevent Black children from attending, the KKK literally BOMBED elementary schools in Nashville, TN. My late wife was going to kindergarten then.
Alabama had a "school placement law," designed to defy the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision and maintain school segregation. It allowed Alabama school boards to assign individual students to particular schools at their own discretion with little transparency or oversight
AL’s School Placement Law, which claimed to allow school boards to designate placement of students based on ability, availability of transportation, and academic background, was modeled after the Pupil Placement Act in NC—enacted on March 30, 1955, in response to Brown.
VA passed the second placement law on September 29, 1956. In 1957, after the NC law was upheld by a higher court, legislatures in other Southern states passed similar pupil placement laws; by 1960, such laws were on the books in AL, AR, FL, LA, NC, TN, TX, VA and the ATL.
After the Alabama law's passage, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth sued on behalf of four African American students in Birmingham who had been denied admission to white schools that were closer to their homes.
SCOTUS: “The School Placement Law furnishes the legal machinery for an orderly administration of the public schools in a constitutional manner by the admission of qualified pupils upon a basis of individual merit without regard to their race or color."
"We must presume that it will be so administered.”

SCOTUS was unanimous in this decision.

So how'd that work out?
Between the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954 and 1958, a total of 376,000 African American children were enrolled in integrated schools in the South. 🙄
This growth slowed significantly as states passed obstructive legislation like these pupil placement laws; the figure rose by just 500 students between 1958 and 1959, and by October 1960, only 6% of African American children in the South were attending integrated schools.
FIN/Crucially, in the five Deep South states, including Alabama, every single one of 1.4 million Black schoolchildren attended segregated schools until the fall of 1960.



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More from @JamesMWilliam18

23 Nov
#OnThisDay November 23, 2014 Tamir Rice, a Black 12-year-old child, died after being shot by police while playing with a toy gun in a park near his home in Cleveland, OH.

Don't know about Tamir Rice?

Glad you asked. #GladYouAsked
This thread may be triggering for some. I wrote, and re-wrote, and re-wrote it again. Finally, I'm just going to use the script pretty much in its entirety from EJI.org. After yesterday's thread, I just can't.
Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old Black boy, died after was shot by a white police officer the day before. He was playing in a park near his Cleveland, OH home when a police car showed up. W/in seconds, before Tamir could be questioned or warned, Officer Timothy Loehmann shot him.
Read 20 tweets
22 Nov
#OnThisDay November 22, 1865 Mississippi began enacting "Black Codes," including one that required sheriffs to roud up Black orphans or "children who weren't kept well" and sell then to white people as laborers.

Didn't know about the "Black Codes"?

Let me warn a whole lot of people this thread right here is probably going to trigger a whole LOT of emotions and feelings. You have been warned.
The end of the outright enslavement of human being in the US still meant freedom eluded most Black people, thanks to the repressive set of laws known as the Black codes. These laws were widely enacted in the wake of the Civil War.
Read 22 tweets
22 Nov
#OnThisDay November 22, 1963 President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated.
President Kennedy was in Dallas, TX with his wife at his side.
Lyndon Baines Johnson was sworn in on Air Force One.
Read 9 tweets
18 Nov
#OnThisDay November 18, 1977 white supremacist Robert E. Chambliss was convicted of 1st degree murder in the 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Carol Robertson, Denise McNair and Cynthia Wesley were killed.

Don't know about this? #Gladyouasked.
Let me warn you right now - this thread might be triggering. The longer thread about this church and the bombing is here - when the first thread runs out, just click on the next one for the finish.
Black-owned homes, schools, churches and businesses were ROUTINELY bombed by the KKK during the civil rights era. They didn't care if someone was home or not - all you had to be was Black and exercising your Constitutional rights. Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's home was bombed.
Read 15 tweets
17 Nov

I have been addicted to the Washington Bullets/Wizards since I was nine years old, going back to Earl "The Pearl" Monroe and Wes Unseld with the Baltimore Bullets! Then when they won the NBA championship when I was 18 . . .
So here are the top 10 (plus five more) Washington Bullets/Wizards of all time!

10. Phil Chenier - 19.7 PPG, 3.0 APG and 1.6 steals, he was an offensive and defensive work horse. He had the most beautiful jump shot ever. His number 45 was retired by the team.
9. Juwan Howard - One of the best picks the Bullets made, he averaged 18 ppg, and had a career high 22.! PPG. He made an immediate impact on the game for my team.
Read 13 tweets
17 Nov

Today, Rep. Paul Gosar (R-AZ) will probably be censured by the House of Representatives, deservedly so. He's a racist, a fool and disrespects the hallowed halls of Congress with his actions.

Once again, Speaker Pelosi, the greatest Speaker in the history of the US, understands the assignment. The video in question targeted two people - President Joe Biden and Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.
Since becoming a Member of Congress in 2018, she has voted WITH the Republicans and AGAINST the Democrats over 60 times - more than Sen. Joe Manchin and Kyrsten Sinema over the same period of time.

Read 8 tweets

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