In ancient India, 12 different kinds of offspring were regarded as the father's legitimate heirs. They don't all have to be their legal father's biological offspring.

#LongThread
12 Types of Children (Legal Heir) in Ancient India

Aurasa : biological son through a woman in a typical marriage, with the Y chromosome belonging to the father.
Putrikaputra : When there isn't a son, the female is treated as one, and her son inherits the estate legally (ex : Babruvahana, born to Arjuna and Chitrangada, but became legal heir of his maternal-grandfather.)
Kshetraja : although husband is not the biological father, wife's womb. (For instance, Kunti and Madri give birth to Pandavas.) The children may be born even after the husband passes away, and they will still be considered the deceased father's heir.
Dattaka : legal adoption or vedic ritual adoption.

Kritima : A youngster is fed and raised as a son, but there are no formal adoption procedures followed. The child grows up and views you as their parent
Gudhaja : unknowing husband's secret son with the wife. This child is also the father's heir. The only distinction with Kshetraja is the presence or absence of the husband.
Apaviddha : a parent's rejected child who nevertheless grew up with others. This child may claim the belongings of the person who fed him, but he is not permitted to perform pind-daan or funeral rites for that family's ancestors
(example: Karna did not or could not do pind-daan to ancestors of the adhirtha-radha)
Kanina : A woman's son who was born before her marriage. He does, however, inherit the future husband of his mother legally.
(For instance, had Kunti not kept Karna's birth a secret, she might have exposed the fact only after Karna's death, even though by this law, Karna should have succeeded Pandu as king of Hastinapur following his passing.)
Sahodha : Along with the marriage comes a son. The boy born to a woman after her marriage, even though the biological father was a different man, was considered to be the son of the man who married her if she was pregnant at the time.
Krita : He is a purchased son.
Paunarbhava : the young widow's son. She was a "Punarbhu" after being married (married second time). Such unions take place when the wife is still a virgin and the marriage is taking place while the husband is still alive.
She is free to choose who she remarries, but the son they have together will inherit the first husband's family's property. Only the second child may she assert rights against, etc.
Swayamdatta : "Self Offered Son" - The youngster in such a circumstance was known as Swayamdatta. He was an orphan who went to someone and offered to be his son; the other person accepted the offer.
Out of above 12, only 3 : Aurasa, Putrikaputra, and Paunarbhava had a right to the entirety of their father's property as well as that of his relatives (inherited from ancestors).
2 more : Only if their biological father eventually married their mother did Kanina and Sahodha receive rights to inherited property.
Other 7 : Only the income generated by their (social) father or the portion of the family estate that belonged to him may be claimed, not the entire estate, according to Kshetraja, Dattaka, Kritima, Gudhaja, Apaviddha, Krita, and Swayamdatta.
They may still have the surname, gotra, etc.
Source: ancient.bharat_

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