1/ New detailed factual explanation of how Tornado Cash works. Huge thanks to @wadeAlexC and @LewellenMichael for this unbiased description of exactly how the contracts function. It confirms a level of decentralization that was surprising, even to me. coincenter.org/education/adva…
2/ None of the core Tornado Cash contracts that provide privacy tools to users can be upgraded, changed, or altered. The privacy that users get from these contracts is guaranteed with math and software that is as immutable as the Ethereum blockchain itself.
3/ To the extent that any of the OFAC-sanctioned addresses retain a human operator role, they are either mere donation addresses to support software development, ancillary services that never control user tokens, or defunct/never used addresses.
4/ The explainer we published today comes complete with an appendix that lists every contract, what it does, and the degree that it has (or once had) any human control in its operation. Image
5/ Additionally, our explainer makes clear that Tornado Cash is not in any factual sense a "mixer." Thanks to zero knowledge proofs privacy is assured even though users can only ever deposit or withdraw their own specific tokens. Image
6/ From these facts we can begin to build stronger legal arguments that OFAC overstepped its statutory authority in sanctioning Tornado Cash. I have an update here: coincenter.substack.com/p/how-does-tor…
7/ The argument has four main parts:
1. The contracts themselves and the software that controls their operation are not foreign nationals or their property and therefore cannot be the target of sanctions.
2. to the extent anyone has property in those addresses, it is because they’ve sought the privacy provided by those software tools. That property is their own and no one else has any meaningful control or ownership rights to that property.
If its an American's property or a law-abiding person who is not sanctioned, then that property is also not properly the subject of sanctions. Moreover, that property is not mixed, commingled, or under any shared control with any sanctioned person's property.
3. When a person uses the Tornado Cash contracts to protect their privacy, they arguably are not even engaged in the kinds of activities that IEEPA empowers the President to block. It's more like they are moving valuables from a drawer in their house to a safe in their house. Image
4. If some Tornado Cash users *are* sanctioned persons, and they have property at those contract addresses, then that property is legitimately the target of sanctions. BUT...
In that case the address of the smart contract itself is not an appropriate alias for that entity or property because, like the name John Smith, it wrongly subjects many more persons to sanctions scrutiny than sanctions laws intend or allow.
13/ Again you can read my full analysis here: coincenter.substack.com/p/how-does-tor…
And you can read our strictly factual Tornado cash explainer here: coincenter.org/education/adva…
14/ Finally thank you to all the experts who made this work possible, in addition to @wadeAlexC and @LewellenMichael we got a huge hand from:
and Milo Murphy

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More from @valkenburgh

Aug 3
1/ New Crypto Bill in Senate: read this thread or our post for the full download on what it does and what risks it poses to software developers and individual crypto users. coincenter.org/a-new-senate-b…
2/ in brief: the bill would call for mandatory CFTC registration & supervision of "digital commodity platforms." It's similar to House DCEA & our 2018 call for CFTC alternative to state MTL. But we remain concerned about overbreadth/unintended effect on devs & users.
3/ We're grateful the authors, @SenStabenow @JohnBoozman @CoryBooker & @SenJohnThune have committed to a sensible federal supervisory scheme for crypto exchanges. We've been calling for a federal alternative to state money transmission licensing since 2018 coincenter.org/the-need-for-a…
Read 10 tweets
Aug 2
"post-truth" is a silly term because most of what matters in life cannot be proved.

"post-narrative" is what's actually going on. there is no uniting cultural narrative for America and many do not even have a personal narrative to give their life meaning.

instead we have...
a proliferation of short-lived fads and manias, thousands of them such that each soul can pick a little bit of many that they want to fascinate themselves with until they again become bored and disenchanted. e.g. whatever this is
Bad Religion as a wise man said.
Read 4 tweets
Aug 2
why isn't more international travel focused on maximizing 8-12 hour durations (even if you could get there a bit faster) and having actual lie-flat, relaxing overnight accommodations with less stupid free alcohol and goody-bag interruptions?
One of the worst things about going to Europe from the east coast (even if you splurge for business class) is the dumb race to fall asleep so you can at least get 4-5 hours overnight before they wake you up for terrible breakfast. The flight is actually TOO SHORT
NY to Paris = ~3.5k miles. 777 cruise speed = ~550 mph. If you really only want your plane to go 300 mph (so transatlantic is a leisurely overnight trip with dinner and breakfast) can you save on fuel and weight such that accommodations can be nicer at the same price point?
Read 4 tweets
Jul 9
@TheAnon16389465 500g bread flour
400g warm water (must be warm)
10g salt (diamond crystal)
10g active dry yeast (Caputo)
4 tbsp good olive oil (100% Californian is decent choice see note later)
1 tsp sugar
@TheAnon16389465 Materials strongly

Kitchen scale with grams,
this isn't games, this is bread, there are rules. Weigh your ingredients.

Baking stone. Even a shitty
oven can have high radiant heat if it's got a big rock in it preheated for two hours.

9*13 pan.
@TheAnon16389465 Instructions:
1.Start preheating your oven and stone (middle rack). As hot as it goes. Hopefully ~500° F

2. Put warm water in medium bowl. Mix in sugar. Sprinkle yeast evenly over water surface. Don't mix. Let sit 15 minutes.
Read 10 tweets
May 26
I'm at this awesome seafood joint in [redacted] South Carolina. Been in business for 80 years. Fish comes right off a boat owned by the restaurant. But... seed oils everywhere. 1/n
Hush puppies on the table. I'm not sure what they are fried in so I look at the menu (not really expecting to find the answer). It's there: they describe their fried fish as [redacted]-style "lightly breaded and fried in low fat, low cholesterol vegetable oil"
I'm not mad, just sad. I look at the honey butter on the table: whipped soybean spread. Now I'm mad, but not at these good people... at the criminal nutritional "science" that's destroying this community's health.
Read 6 tweets
May 25
This is an important question. When my wife was pregnant we talked about what works happen if breastfeeding wasn't easy and we needed other foods. Fortunately, everything went well. But the research I did stunned me... 1/n
First. You can't find any American formula that doesn't have large quantities of seed oils to fill a perceived need for linoleic acid in infant diets.
Second, you almost never find help in creating baby formula from whole foods (even though the origin of the phrase "baby formula" was a list you'd get from a pediatrician to make yourself).
Read 8 tweets

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