zkayAPE ⚛️🎒⛈️ Profile picture
May 14 12 tweets 6 min read Read on X
You have probably heard about @ArweaveEco.

What about @aoTheComputer – the hyper parallel computer, launched by the same team behind $AR?

Here is why you should be paying attention to Arweave/AO.

Thread Below 🔽Image
1/ Firstly, a short recap of Arweave:

Arweave is a decentralized data storage solution that scales indefinitely, functioning like a globally accessible, permanent hard drive.

It aims to serve as the foundational data layer for the permaweb – a permanent decentralized web where content, ranging from images to complete web applications, is stored forever and cannot be removed or deleted.Image
2/ So what is AO?

AO is a hyper parallel computer – think of it as a giant global shared computer that has an infinite amount of resources.

In essence, it offers an ‘absurdly scalable’ decentralized computation environment that allow you run any number of processes in parallel at the same time.Image
3/ What makes AO special?

AO allows you to do any amount of verifiable compute.

Existing Approach:

-L1s operate on a single thread of execution model where all transaction interact with a globally locked memory space

-Rollups and appchains allows for more thread of execution at same time. However, it is still sharing and competing to access one shared resource/computer

-Operates as a globally synchronized state

-Can only execute small computational task and execution tied to consensus

-More computation power but still same number of state production per block

AO Approach:

-Adopts horizontal scaling

-Instead of chasing larger global shared state machine, AO focuses on enabling any number of parallel processes to happen at same time

-AO Processes manages own independent states and coordinate by one another through messages

-Processes that run inside AO which then rollup onto Arweave scalable onchain storage as permanent host offering verifiable reproducibility

-More computation capacity leads to more output created
4/ Key Characteristics of AO:

Parallel Independent Processing:
AO operates through network of nodes, creating a unified computing environment that can host unlimited number of processes in parallel. Each process function like an independent server, does not share memory with one another and maintain a holographic state.

Unbounded Computation:
Processes are not subject to protocol-imposed limits on amount of information that they can compute and can be executed in parallel across the network.

Holographic State:
State is implied holographically due to the message logs being stored permanently on Arweave allowing for it to be able to be derived and verified indirectly. This removes the need for real time computation or consensus.

Each process can customize its computing environment, virtual machines (can plug any in like EVM, SVM), sequencer style and access permanent on chain data storage on Arweave.

SSI (Single System Image):
Making cluster of machines appear as a single machine to end user.

Offers AOS (Operating System) that developers can use to build applications using the LUA language, which is easy and intuitive to use. This provides a high level of abstraction, freeing developers from concerns like optimizing gas fees.
5/ Architecture Breakdown of AO:

There is 3 additional P2P Scalable Sub Network built on top of Arweave, leveraging its permanent data storage capabilities:

1. Messaging Unit : Responsible for circulation of messages and ensuring messages are distributed throughout the system

2. Scheduling Unit : Ensures proper message sequencing for systematic processing and storage onto Arweave, guaranteeing correct attestation.

3. Compute Unit : Manages computation and memory, ensuring that the output is a result from interaction.

All of these units are secured by Proof of Stake on top with slashing and processes communicate and interact through messages.Image
6/ Benefits of Above Architecture:

-More units = More power and scalability

-Each subnet operates as a p2p marketplace where demand for services boosts incentives to bring additional capacity online, while competition helps lower prices

-Will never need fee market. Users don’t need to compete for limited bandwidth by queueing up to use network resources and pay fees to be the person editing the state of the system at a specific point in time

-Enable developers to build in unconstrained environment like incorporating LLM within smart contracts

-Processes do not share memory between one another, coordination is done by native message passing standard
7/ Sounds good, but parallel processing - isn’t this just same as another parallel VM blockchain?

Parallel VM uses Shared Memory:

Parallel VM still uses shared memory model and lock contention. There is a queue to access and modify the data.

AO uses Message Passing:

AO message passing architecture allows for independent processes, allowing for each process to function independently just like how individual program run on computer. There is no lock contention. Every process runs individually.
8/ Implications of AO:

1. Build things like LLM running inside smart contracts due to unconstrained environment and can store large amounts of data

2. Decentralized recommendation system and indexers for social media

3. Autonomous Agents/AgentFi

-Can be autonomous leveraging upon Crons which allow processes to generate and receive messages at specified intervals.

-Autonomous Finance @autonomous_af already building :

-Additional piece on AgentFi :
9/ What is the status of ecosystem in AO now?

The testnet has already launched and you can start exploring the ecosystem today:

You can refer to this thread on how to get involved :

For an additional overview of the ecosystem, check out this thread :
10/ What’s next for AO and Arweave?

As AO grows, $AR will grow with increase in demand for storage on Arweave.

Additionally, it seems that there is another release expected in the pipeline based on this tweet from the founder @samecwilliams :

11/ Additional Thoughts/End

AO definitely sounds intriguing, offering an entirely different approach to how Web 3 and AI can further intersect and it is definitely worth to start paying attention to the ecosystem.

If you enjoyed this thread, do like, retweet and follow me @zkayape for more breakdown of contents in the space!

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