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The_War_Economy @The_War_Economy
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(1) A Spotlight On Willow Creek Mine.
(2) It is located in the Johnson and Campbell Countries in Wyoming's Powder River Basin.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(3) It is approximately 105km north of the City of Casper, Wyoming.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(4) There are two sites which form the mine - Irigaray and Christensen Ranch.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(5) This is roughly the location of Irigaray Mine on Google Maps.

google.co.uk/maps/place/Iri…
(6) This is roughly the location of Christensen Ranch Mine on Google Maps.

google.co.uk/maps/place/Chr…
(7) They are in close proximity to each other.

google.co.uk/maps/dir/Iriga…
(8) This is the map as per the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(9) This is a photograph of the area.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(10) The Project contains roughly 15,000 acres of land.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(11) The Willow Creek mine is a part of the Uranium Producers of America.

theupa.org/about_us/upa_m…
(12) The Uranium Producers of America is an organisation that was founded in 1985 to promote fair competition.

theupa.org/about_us/profi…
(13) Willow Creek mine is also a part of the Wyoming Mining Association.

wyomingmining.org/members/wma-di…
(14) Officers on the Board of Directors includes Craig Rood, Dan Close and Paul Goranson.

wyomingmining.org/contact/board-…
(15) Members on the Board of Directors includes Todd Brichacek, Shane Durgin, Matt Young, Gary Rivenes, Shane Gant, Dale Nuttall, Dale Brown, Mike Thomas, Keith Williams and Scott Durgin.

wyomingmining.org/contact/board-…
(16) In the present day, Uranium One holds the operational licence issued by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to do work in Willow Creek.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(17) As such, they have a licensed and permitted ISR central processing plant at Irigaray.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(18) This is an image of the Irigaray site layout as per the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(19) This contains an average of 2,400 gallons per minute ion exchange plant and the resin elution, precipitation, and drying / packing circuits.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(20) The drying capability is equivalent to approximately 2.5 million pounds throughput per year.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(21) Uranium One also has a satellite ISR facility at Christensen Ranch.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(22) This is an image of the Christensen Ranch site layout as per the United States Regulatory Commission.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(23) This satellite facility contains an ion exchange plant and well fields.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(24) This is an image of an ion exchange plant.

3.imimg.com/data3/PE/YH/MY…
(25) It also has an ion exchange circuit, operating at a maximum flow rate of 9,000 gallons per minute on a yearly basis.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(26) It has a lixiviant makeup circuit as well.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(27) There are two deep disposal wells used for liquid waste disposal. There are a further two that are licensed under the SUA-1341 licence, but they have not been drilled.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(28) But what we're going to do right here is go back... WAY back... back into time... !

(29) In 1867, prospectors discovered a rich lode of gold along Willow Creek at the base of the Wind River Ridge.

wsgs.wyo.gov/products/wsgs-…
(30) This led to the sinking of the Carissa shaft.

wsgs.wyo.gov/products/wsgs-…
(31) South Pass City was then built in 1868 to keep watch of the gold mine.

wsgs.wyo.gov/products/wsgs-…
(32) In the present, South Pass City is a ghost town, as all residents eventually left the city in 1949 after the gold mines closed down.

legendsofamerica.com/wy-southpassci…
(33) This is a photograph of South Pass City in Wyoming.
(34) This is a video of people wandering through the ghost town.

(35) In 1918, Fred Christensen married a teacher named Ellen Johanna Brown, whose father established the T-Chair Ranch on Willow Creek.

gillettenewsrecord.com/archives/artic…
(36) Their son, John "Jack" Frederick Christensen married Margaret Ellen Mathiasen, establishing his own ranching business on Willow Creek in 1961.

wyoshpo.state.wy.us/pdf/centennial…
(37) In 1964, a coal and carbonaceous shale seam several feet think was exposed in the cutbank along Willow Creek.

pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1107h/repo…
(38) Sandstone was also located in the channel deposit in Willow Creek.

pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1107h/repo…
(39) In situ recovery uranium mining was discovered in Wyoming in the 1960's, forming the foundation of that style of mining ever since.

hardhathr.com/2013/08/
(40) This is a diagram of how in situ recovery uranium mining operates.

world-nuclear.org/uploadedImages…
(41) People have been mining at Willow Creek since August 1978.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(42) Specifically, the Irigaray site was acquired and operated by the Wyoming Mineral Corporation, which was a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(43) In July 1974, Wyoming Mineral Corporation was given the source material licence SUA-1204.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(44) This granted them the authorisation to research and develop a uranium recovery operation at the Irigaray site.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(45) The Project was licensed to operate at an 800 gallon per minute flow rate, using an ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(46) In April 1978, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimated that the Project would have a 10 - 20 year lifespan based on current levels of technology and ore deposits.

inis.iaea.org/search/search.…
(47) As stated before, the Project itself started in August 1978.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(48) It is classified as an ISR uranium mine.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(49) This means that miners extract the uranium from low-grade ores directly, as other mining / milling strategies will either be expensive or environmentally disruptive.

nrc.gov/materials/uran…
(50) The water is sampled quarterly, for eight chemical parameters and five radionuclides.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(51) During Wyoming Mineral Corporation's control over Willow Creek, they were subjected to numerous fires and excursions of chemicals at the Irigaray site.

rapidcityjournal.com/uranium/powert…
(52) In November 1978, the SUA-1341 source material licence was issued to Wyoming Mineral Corporation.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(53) In 1982, operations stopped at the Irigaray site as they waited for improvements in the uranium market.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(54) In June 1987, Malapai Resources Company - a subsidiary of Arizona Public Service - bought the Irigaray site from Westinghouse Electric Corpporation.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(55) Operations resumed shortly afterwards.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(56) Kurtis Brown started working at the Research and Development ISR uranium test site in the Powder River Basin part of Wyoming.

marketoracle.co.uk/Article24061.h…
(57) After this, Kurtis was transferred to Irigaray Mine to assist with the start-up of Christensen Ranch's ISR commercial uranium mine.

marketoracle.co.uk/Article24061.h…
(58) The project manager during this time was David H. Scriven.

westernstatesmining.com/environ.asp
(59) He oversaw testing and environmental assessment of plants, ponds and leach fields.

westernstatesmining.com/environ.asp
(60) Also, at some point during this, Donna Wichers worked at the Irigaray project as an Environmental Engineer.

marketwired.com/press-release/…
(61) She left the Irigaray project in 1982 to join Sierra Blanca Geo-Services.

marketwired.com/press-release/…
(62) In 1988, Malapai Resources Company incorporated the Christensen Ranch site under the same licence.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(63) The Irigaray process was upgraded to include facilities for processing ion exchange resin from Christensen Ranch.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(64) The flow rate of the recovery plane was also increased to 2,400 gallons per minute.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(65) Kurtis Brown then left the organisation to join Uranerz USA, Inc. in 1989.

marketoracle.co.uk/Article24061.h…
(66) In September 1990, Malapai Resources Company was sold to Electricité de France (EdF).

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(67) Electricité de France selected Total Minerals Corporation (TOMIN) to be the operator of both the Irigaray and Christensen Ranch projects.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(68) As such, on September 20, 1990, the licences were transferred to the ownership of Total Minerals Corporation.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(69) In 1991, Total Minerals Corporation resumed operations on both sites.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(70) In 1993, COGEMA Mining, Inc. bought the properties in Wyoming and Texas to continue the in situ recovery operation from Electricité de France.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(71) This came to an end in June 2000.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(72) The entire project was watched over by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Willow Creek Uranium Recovery Project, or the "Willow Creek Project" as it was also known as.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(73) In June 2000, Units 2 through 6 at the Christensen Ranch site completed their production activities.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(74) As such, operations had ceased by the end of 2000.

scribd.com/document/36328…
(75) In 2001, six ISL reserves were held by Excalibur Industries - Willow Creek, Verna Ann, Niles Ranch, Doughstick, Hank and Nichols Ranch.

sec.gov/Archives/edgar…
(76) In October 2002, Uranium One submitted an application for a licence for the Moore Ranch mine.

world-nuclear-news.org/ENF-New_US_ura…
(77) Moore Ranch is also located in Campbell County, Wyoming.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(78) This is a map of Moore Ranch as per the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(79) In May 2005, the groundwater restoration and stabilisation for Units 2 through 6 were successfully completed at the Christensen Ranch site.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(80) In September 2006, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the groundwater restoration at the Irigaray site.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(81) In April 2007, COGEMA Mining, Inc. requested a return to operational status with the same conditions that existed previously before it obtained a possession-only licence for restoration and decommissioning.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(82) On October 2, 2007, Uranium One Americas submitted their application to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a new source material licence for Moore Ranch.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(83) In April 2008, a report about the groundwater restoration efforts for the Christensen Ranch was submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(84) On May 30, 2008, COGEMA Mining, Inc. submitted an application to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a SUA-1341 licence renewal.

gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2…
(85) On September 30, 2008, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted COGEMA Mining, Inc. permission to return to operating status.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(86) On December 17, 2009, Uranium One USA, Inc. became the licensee for Source Materials Licence SUA-1341.

gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2…
(87) In 2010, half of the land surrounding Willow Creek was privately owned and the other half was owned by the Bureau of Land Management and the State of Wyoming.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(88) On January 25, 2010, Uranium One USA, Inc. purchased COMEGA Mining, Inc., gaining control of the SUA-1341 licence.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(89) At some point in 2010, the State of Wyoming discovered issues with contaminants migrating through groundwater from the Christensen Ranch site, finding uranium levels over 70 times the maximum contaminate threshold.

rapidcityjournal.com/news/leaks-spi…
(90) In June 2010, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a draft materials licence to build and operate an in situ uranium recovery facility at Moore Ranch.

world-nuclear-news.org/ENF-New_US_ura…
(91) On September 30, 2010, Uranium One received an operating licence for their Moore Ranch uranium mine in order to produce uranium bearing resins.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(92) The loaded resins from Moore Ranch were then to be transported to Willow Creek.

world-nuclear-news.org/ENF-New_US_ura…
(93) In October 2010, Uranium One was considering expanding into Ludeman, Allemand-Ross and Barge.

world-nuclear-news.org/ENF-New_US_ura…
(94) It was around this time that Uranium One started considering the deal.
(95) On October 18, 2010, Uranium One emphasised that ARMZ / Rosatom would not have any power in dealing with Uranium One's operations.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(96) They specifically stated that there was no intention to export uranium from the United States mines, adn that it would focus on American commercial customers.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(97) On October 22, 2010, the Uranium One-ARMZ deal was authorised by the United States Department of Treasury's Committee On Foreign Investments.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(98) On October 27, 2010, Rob Buchanan of Uranium One expected the deal to be completed within several weeks.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(99) Atomredmetzoloto (ARMZ) also were given a chance to install two individuals into Uranium One's management team - one of these would be placed in Kazakhstan.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(100) ARMZ would control 52.1% of Uranium One through two subsidiaries - Effective Energy NV in the Netherlands and Uranium Mining Co. in Russia.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(101) Uranium Mining Co. was founded in 2006, with shares owned equally by TENEX and TVEL.

mydocs.epri.com/docs/Corporate…
(102) On November 11, 2010, a video of Willow Creek Mine was uploaded with explanations of the surroundings and the layout.

(103) On November 23, 2010, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the change of control from Uranium One to ARMZ.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(104) They established that it "will not be inimical to the common defense and security or to the health and safety of the public".

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(105) In December 2010, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the return of active uranium recovery operations.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(106) On December 27, 2010, Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation (Rosatom) successfully bought Uranium One.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(107) It was sold for $610 million and interests in two uranium mines in southern Kazakhstan.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(108) This led to a change of hands from Uranium One, Inc. in Canada to Rosatom in Russia.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(109) On February 4, 2011, a letter was sent to Keith McConnell of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, requesting amendments to their SUA-1341 licences for both Irigaray and Christensen Ranch.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML…
(110) They wanted to change the precipitation process for yellowcake at Irigaray Central Processing Plant - to use sulphuric acid instead of hydrochloric acid.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML…
(111) They also wanted clarification on the technical qualifications for the Radiation Safety Technician (RST).

nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML…
(112) They specifically referred to the change to sulphuric acid as being too important to their work.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML…
(113) By March 2011, Moore Ranch was entering initial stages of construction.

scribd.com/document/36328…
(114) At some point in 2011, 7,000 to 10,000 gallons of sodium chloride brine was released into a dry ephemeral stream at the Irigaray site.

rapidcityjournal.com/news/leaks-spi…
(115) Uranium One waited two weeks to notify the State of Wyoming - even though they were meant to have notified the state in 24 hours.

rapidcityjournal.com/news/leaks-spi…
(116) As such, they were issued a violation by the state.

rapidcityjournal.com/news/leaks-spi…
(117) On July 7, 2011, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission completed the final EA and FONSI for Uranium One's licence renewal request.

gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2…
(118) Towards the third quarter of 2011, Willow Creek was one of six places in America producing uranium.

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK20104…
(119) By 2012, Uranium One was in charge of Willow Creek, resuming production.

uranium1.com/our-operations…
(120) In March 2012, the application for an in situ leach mine was received as per the Natural Resources Defense Council.

nrdc.org/sites/default/…
(121) On June 23, 2012, a worker at the Cameco Corporation refinery in Blind River loosened a ring clamp on a 208-litre drum of uranium oxide yellowcake.

cbc.ca/news/canada/sa…
(122) The lid blew off and 26 kilograms of the material was expelled into the air.

cbc.ca/news/canada/sa…
(123) The worker close to the drum and two others in the area - who were not wearing respirators - were exposed.

cbc.ca/news/canada/sa…
(124) The drums had been delivered from the Willow Creek facility.

cbc.ca/news/canada/sa…
(125) In July 2012, an investigation was launched by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission into the yellowcake uranium incident from June 23.

edition.cnn.com/2012/07/10/us/…
(126) Donna Wichers said that the personnel at Willow Creek inspected all drums prior to delivery but found zero issues.

edition.cnn.com/2012/07/10/us/…
(127) However, after an investigation, it turned out that nine drums needed to have holes drilled into them to release pressure.

edition.cnn.com/2012/07/10/us/…
(128) In October 2012, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission completed their review of the groundwater restoration efforts in Units 2 through 6 for the Christensen Ranch, ultimately deciding not to approve it.

nrc.gov/info-finder/ma…
(129) Willow Creek was then mentioned in the Rosatom annual report.

static.globalreporting.org/report-pdfs/20…
(130) On December 17, 2012, Uranium One was required to have an STA in place. However, it failed to do so and it did not request an exemption.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1414/ML…
(131) The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to grant Uranium One an exemption regardless, lasting until December 31, 2016.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1414/ML…
(132) In January 2013, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission found no issues with Uranium One USA, Inc. and renewed their licence for Willow Creek.

gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2…
(133) On January 14, 2013, U1 Inc. and ARMZ agreed for ARMZ to purchase U1 Inc.'s common shares held by shareholders other than ARMZ.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(134) On January 29, 2013, Donna Wichers sent a letter to Andrew Persinko and Robert J. Torres to inform them of a transaction between Uranium One, Inc. and ARMZ.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(135) It featured a diagram of the sale.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1304/ML…
(136) It delisted itself from the Toronto Stock Exchange.

world-nuclear-news.org/C-Time-for-cha…
(137) In June 2013, Uranium One laid off sixteen employees that worked at the Willow Creek mine after they decided to stop drilling additional wells because of uranium prices dropping.

trib.com/business/energ…
(138) Because of this, no new well fields were to be created.

trib.com/business/energ…
(139) At the same time, constructions on Moore Ranch also stopped.

trib.com/business/energ…
(140) An interview between Investing News and David Talbot on August 1, 2013, had Talbot consider that Russia buying Uranium One, Inc. was to lock down a reliable uranium source.

investingnews.com/daily/resource…
(141) In November 2013, Rosatom considered expanding the Willow Creek Project.

reuters.com/article/russia…
(142) By December 2013, the effects of Russia were also hitting the nearby Lost Creek.

trib.com/business/energ…
(143) The annual report for Uranium One's work was released, showing the changes from 2012 to 2013.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1330/ML…
(144) This is a table showing exactly how much uranium in lbs was gathered every year since December 1978.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1330/ML…
(145) They swapped from using an ArcGIS data platform to using an ArcSDE data platform.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1330/ML…
(146) There were a total of seven spills.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1330/ML…
(147) By May 2014, another eight employees had been laid off at Willow Creek.

trib.com/business/energ…
(148) The second quarter of 2014 saw an output of 133,700 pounds of uranium.

trib.com/business/energ…
(149) In November 2014, it was established that uranium concentrate was produced at one uranium smelter (White Mesa) with five associated ISL production centres - Crow Butte, Alta Mesa, La Palangana, Smith Ranch-Highland and Willow Creek.

translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=e…
(150) Also in November 2014, a bill was introduced to transfer control of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the Department of Environmental Quality to allow it to regulate itself.

mining.com/wyoming-a-step…
(151) The second quarter of 2015 saw an output of 35,500 pounds of uranium.

trib.com/business/energ…
(152) On June 1, 2015, another deal was being laid out, specifically revolving around a change in corporate structure.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(153) At the time, ARMZ held 43% of the shares of Uranium One Holding N.V., while AtomCapital (AK) held the remaining 57%.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(154) ARMZ was indirectly owned by Atomic Energy Power Corporation (AEP), which itself is a subsidiary of Rosatom.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(155) Uranium One Holding N.V. was the new name for Effective Energy N.V..

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(156) Uranium One Group was the new name for Uranium Mining Company.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(157) AtomCapital is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Rosatom.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(158) Rosatom was to restructure the chain above Uranium One, with 57-67% of Uranium One Group's shares to be held by Atomic Energy Power Corporation, while ARMZ continued to hold 33-43% of the shares.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(159) Meanwhile, 20-25% of Uranium One Holding's shares would be held by Uranium One Group, with ARMZ and AtomCapital's interests in Uranium One Holding dropping to 32-34% and 43-45% respectively.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(160) This is an image of the current corporate structure at the time of the letter.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(161) This is an image of what they wanted the corporate structure to be.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1518/ML…
(162) After this, major functions of Uranium One's Toronto office were then relocated to Moscow, with leadership transferring to new CEO Feroz Ashraf.

world-nuclear-news.org/C-Time-for-cha…
(163) On November 3, 2016, Uranium One contacted Luke McMahan - the permit coordinator for Willow Creek - to discuss the failed MIT for Christensen Ranch Mine Unit 8 underlying aquifer monitoring well 8DM4A.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1703/ML…
(164) On November 7, 2016, Uranium One told Luke McMahan that it would plug and abandon deep monitoring well 8DM4A due to the well failing the MIT.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1703/ML…
(165) The well would not be replaced.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1703/ML…
(166) On December 8, 2016, Uranium One and Anfield Resources, Inc. came to an agreement for Uranium One to process 500,000 pounds of yellowcake per year for Anfield in Wyoming.

rosatom.ru/en/press-centr…
(167) On December 16, 2016, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality-Land Quality Division received a request for a reduction in the underlying aquifer monitoring program associated with Willow Creek Mine and Christensen Ranch Mine Unit 8.

nrc.gov/docs/ML1703/ML…
(168) This is Willow Creek's mineral resources and reserves as of December 31, 2016.

uranium1.com/upload/iblock/…
(169) End of thread.
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