African Moors who introduced learning and civilization in Spain.
The Moors began invading Spain around 711 AD when an African army, under leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from North Africa invading the Iberian peninsula ‘Andalus’
Tarik Ibn Zayid led 300 Arabs and 6700 Africans in conquering Spain around 700 A.D.
A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way: 📸 And second image from Alfonso X description. 📷
The Moors, who ruled Spain for 800 yrs, introduced new scientific techniques to Europe, i.e astrolabe, a device for measuring the position of the stars and planets. Scientific progress in Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Maths, Geography and Philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain
The Waalo female warriors who resisted colonisation from the 11th to 19th century.
Queen Ndate Yalla Mbodj, the last Queen of the Waalo female kingdom which before the invasion of the French and Arabs was one of the strongest kingdoms in what is now Senegal.
A strong female army that fought the French off until they were defeated. In the absence of no recorded name given to this distinct and powerful Senegalese army of women, it is only appropriate to refer to them as the Waalo female warriors.
Before the invasion of the Arabs and the French, the Waalo state was a matrilineal state that believed that men and women were equal and were capable of the same things. Women were therefore trained for military and political roles and women were allowed to rule
Australia was the home to over 400 aborigine tribes,A genetic study showed that Australian people may have left Africa up to 75,000 years ago which would make them one of the oldest continuous populations outside of Africa
Australia has two distinct groups of Indigenous peoples of Australia, they are Torres Strait Islander peoples and the Aboriginal peoples.
Cave painting from Northern Territory, Australia, of a spirit figure associated with the meeting of the legendary kangaroo and serpent heroes in the Dreaming.
Famous well known Greeks (Europeans) whom we study their history and writings, studied at the feet of Ancient Egyptian (Kemet) scholars at the Temple of Waset founded 1405B.C (15BC Cent) & also in Timbuktu Temple founded in 1201BC in now Mali
Phil Plato was a student at Waset Temple for 11yrs. Also, Aristotle was a student there for 11-13 years. Socrates spent at least 15 years at the same temple; likewise, Euclid studied for 10-11 years at the same temple. Pythagoras spent 22 years there.
Ancient Scholars in Egypt began keeping records as far back as 4000 to 3000 BC same with the people of now sub-saharan Africa. Several Europeans also studied in Timbuktu Temple where most researches were carried out.
Nubians kingdom of Kush ruled ancient Egypt from 700 BC
The 25th dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Nubian dynasty or kushite kingdom, was the last dynasty of Egypt’s Third Middle Era after the Nubian incursion (the XXV Dynasty or the 25th Dynasty).
The 25th dynasty was a line of pharaohs from Kush Kingdom, located in northern Sudan and Upper Egypt today. Most of the kings of this dynasty have seen Napata as their ancestral homeland. They reigned from 744–656 BC, in part or all of Ancient Egypt.
The dynasty began with the conquest of Upper Egypt by Kashta and resulted in successful and ineffective wars with the Neo-Assyrian Empire in Mesopotamia in several years. Lower Egypt,Upper Egypt and Kush the 25th Dynasty reunited formed the New Kingdom ‘s largest Egyptian empire
Young boys who stay with the cattle all day, are taught to rub moist mud or clay all over their body to protect themselves from sun-stroke or from scratches from the thorny undergrowth.
Older boys and men often cover their mouth or entire head with ash from the cattle-bryre (burnt cattle-dung), or with fresh cattle-dung, since this deters flies.
However, the most important reason the Mursi and Surma paint their bodies is as a medicine, either preventive or curative. Earths and clays are known to have ‘active’ qualities, which people try to use to their advantage.
Beja people are one of the living descendants of Ancient Egypt.
The Beja people of north east Sudan and southern Egypt are living descendants of Ancient Egyptians. If you ever wondered from all the controversy what the Ancient Egyptians look like take a good look.
They are a true representation of ancient egyptians. Note most of the people of modern Egypt are descended from Arabs who invaded in the 7th centuary and whiten the population. The language the Beja people speak is the closest language to that of classical Egypt.
The Beja are said to be the Medjay soldier class originating in Ta-Seti as the archers called into service during the 12th Dynastic Period.
Their Beja name is said to derive from the municipality founded by Amenemhat I called Amenemhat-It-jawy or Itjawy or Bedjawi...
Tenkamenin (African king ruled over a democratic nation centuries before Abraham Lincoln)
Tenkamenin, (A.k.a. People's king). Tenkamenin ruled from 1062 until 1075 in the Ancient Ghana Empire Throughout Tenkamenin’s brief reign Ghana reached great heights.
Tenkamenin’s empire prospered economically through his tactful management of the gold trade across the Sahara desert in West Africa.
The Ghana Kingdom that existed between 830-1235AD remains one of the strongest ever and richest African kingdoms with a rich culture. It is often mistaken for modern-day Ghana, formerly known as the Gold Coast.
"During my term in AU,I will initiate an organised compensation claim for Africa and I will fight for a greater voice for Africa in the United Nations Security Council. If they do not want to live with us fairly,it is our planet and they can go to another planet."-Colonel Gaddafi
"The type of education now prevailing all over the world is directed against human freedom. State-controlled education deprives people of their free choice, creativity and brilliance."-Colonel Gaddafi
"To force a human being to learn according to a set curriculum is a dictatorial act."-Colonel Gaddafi
Ivory portrait of Queen Mother Idia of Benin Empire. Looted by British 123 years ago.
The Benin ivory mask is a miniature ivory sculptural portrait of Idia, the first Iyoba-or Queen Mother-of the Benin Empire of the 16th century, taking the shape of a traditional African mask.
This ivory portrait of Queen Mother Idia from the 16th century is among the most celebrated works by The Met. It is one of four ivory pendant masks, which was one of the prestigious artifacts of the Oba of Benin, taken by the British on the punitive expedition in 1897.
The British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Art Museum in New York City have two nearly similar masks.
Both feature a cool, beaded headrest face of the Queen Mother, a beading choker, an iron inlay in the eye,
Ranavalona III, the last queen of the Kingdom of Madagascar
She ruled from July 30, 1883 to February 28, 1897 in a reign marked by ultimately futile efforts to resist the colonial designs of the government of France.
As a young woman, she was selected from among several Andriana qualified to succeed Queen Ranavalona II upon her death. Like both preceding queens, Ranavalona entered a political marriage with a member of the Hova elite named Rainilaiarivony,
who largely oversaw the day-to-day governance of the kingdom and managed its foreign affairs in his role as prime minister. Ranavalona tried to stave off colonization by strengthening trade and diplomatic relations with foreign powers throughout her reign,
The Rozvi Empire, also known as the Rozvi State, was a kingdom established by Changamire Dombo and that existed from about 1684 to 1834. It was the greatest state in Zimbabwe from the late 17th to the early 19th centuries built with stones.
Changamire Dombo was a relative of the Munhumutapa and was one of the local Shona leaders. He gained the title Changamire (lord) and an effective army known as the Rozvi, that, by the 1670s, became a major force in the northeast of the Zimbabwean plateau.
The Rozvi empire emerged from the Mutapa empire as Dombo defeated the Portuguese, driving them out from their key marketplaces in the Zambezi Valley.
Mining of minerals however, especially gold mining, continued. The gold was traded for luxury imports.
The Kingdom of Dongola was located within the present day southern Egypt and northern Sudan, the dominion was best referred to as Nubian independent region.
It was one among the Nubian empires that rise after the collapse of the dominion of Kush which controlled the region from 785 BC to AD 350. Other kingdoms which emerged were Nobatia with its capital in Pachoras which is today called Faras...
and Alodia in the southern region, their capital was Soba (Subah) near Khartoum the today’s capital of Sudan. But Nobatia could be an ancient form Makuria Empire (or multiply Maqurrah, Makuura or Makouria).
A dominant civilization was built in the Indus Valley more than a thousand years by prideful and ambitious Black men and women known as the Dravidians before the foundation of Greece and Rome.
From those origins, African Kings have driven the trade, culture, and belief systems of the region in India. Ethiopians have had very intimate relations with Indians. In fact, in antiquity the Ethiopians ruled much of India. These Ethiopians were called the Naga.
It was the Naga who created Sanskrit. A reading of ancient Dravidian literature which dates back to 500 BC, gives us considerable information on the Naga. In Indian tradition the Naga won central India from the Villavar (bowmen) and Minavar (fishermen).
African women warriors from Dahomey Kingdom (17th century) that inspired Black Panther
On the Coast of West Africa, the Dahomey Kingdom (1625 -1894) was home to the only appointed elite female warrior troop in history.
In what is now modern day Benin, the Dahomey soldiers included fearless female warriors, most commonly known as the Dahomey Amazons.Not much is known about how the Dahomey Warriors came to be or even what happened to the last of the Dahomey Warriors.
But thankfully, oral history, pockets of eye witnesses and pieces of written diary entries, has patchworked their legacy to tell their story. The myths surrounding the origins of the Dahomey Warriors.
Queen of Sheba-Makeda, intelligent African queen who visited King Solomon to verify his wisdom
Many religious texts, including the Bible, Quran, Targum Sheni, and Ethiopian work, Kebra Negas, reference Makeda, the Queen of Sheba in present-day Ethiopia.
She is referenced to have been a wise, wealthy and very influential ruler who had to meet King Solomon to verify reports of his intelligence and after a series of examinations, she showered him with valuable gifts.
Queen of Sheba, Arabic Bilqīs, Ethiopian Makeda, (thrived 10th century BCE). In the biblical account of King Salomon’s reign,
The Songhai Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries was a kingdom that controlled the Western Sahel. It was one of the most important states in African history at its height.
The state is known for its historiographic name, derived from the Songhai, its leading ethnic group and ruling elite. The Songhai Empire was located in south of the Sahara Desert in Western Africa and along the River Niger.
It reached to the Atlantic Ocean at its peak well over 1,000 miles from the country in present-day Niger. The Songhai capital city was the city of Gao which was situated on the banks of the Niger River in modern-day Mali.
Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter Anglicization of the word in their language, Fulɓɓe) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and The Sudan of east Africa.
The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Niger, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan.
Fulas are not a majority in every country they live but they are the fifth most populous Ethnic group in Africa, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (largest single group).
The French first invaded Chad in 1891, establishing their authority through military expeditions primarily against the Muslim kingdoms. The decisive colonial battle for Chad was fought on April 22, 1900 at Battle of Kousséri between forces of French Major Amédée-François Lamy
and forces of the Sudanese warlord Rabih az-Zubayr. Both leaders were killed in the battle. In 1905, administrative responsibility for Chad was placed under a governor-general stationed at Brazzaville, capital of French Equatorial Africa (AEF). Chad did not have a separate
colonial status until 1920, when it was placed under a lieutenant-governor stationed in Fort-Lamy (today N'Djamena).
Two fundamental themes dominated Chad's colonial experience with the French: an absence of policies designed to unify the territory and an exceptionally