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#OTD in 1862 Newton Knight reenlisted in the Confederate Army after being on furlough. He originally enlisted in July of 1861. He deserted in October of 1862 and headed home after he received word the Confederate Army had taken his family's horses for the war effort.
There is much debate and mystery surrounding Knight, his actions during and after the war, and what motivated him. However, Knight's life provides insight into conflicting ideas of race, class, and politics in Mississippi and the South writ large during the Civil War.
Knight was a yeoman farmer in Jones County, Mississippi when the war broke out. According to historian @vikki_bynum, only 12% of the county's population was Black and most whites were subsistence farmers like Knight.
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The Battle of Palmito Ranch was fought in Texas #OTD in 1865. The Confederate victory is widely considered the last battle of the Civil War. The battle occurred over one month after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox and two days after Jefferson Davis was captured. Image
Both sides knew the war was virtually over, but a small contingent of Confederate forces refused to surrender near Brownsville, Texas. Many of the men serving under the Union Army there were members of the United States Colored Troops.
A fragile cease fire had been agreed to between the two sides on May 11. However, Confederate Lt. Gen. Edmund Smith of the Trans-Mississippi Department refused to accept the inevitable end of the war.
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#OTD in 1864 the House passed the Wade-Davis Reconstruction bill. The House version of the bill was written by Rep. Henry Davis of Maryland. By this time Congress attempted to preemptively take control of post-war policy, creating a rift with President Lincoln.
Lincoln issued the "Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction" on December 8, 1863. It required only 10 percent of a seceding state's population to take an oath of loyalty before a new state government could be formed. These states would also be required to abolish slavery.
Radical Republicans in Congress felt Lincoln's plan was too lenient and began crafting legislation of their own to address the issue. They asserted that Confederate states were not states, but conquered territory. Lincoln maintained that those states never legally seceded.
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#OTD in 1865 President Andrew Johnson put out a reward of $100,000 dollars (Approximately $2 million in today's money) for the capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Davis and a small group of close advisors had fled Richmond in early April. Image
They initially fled to Danville, Virginia but had to quickly leave because the Union Army was hot on their tail. They arrived in the town of Washington, Georgia in Wilkes County of May 3rd. He held his last meeting the next day. Image
Davis reunited with his family on May 7th and they arrived in Abbeville on May 8th. During this time, it was believed by the United States Government that Davis played a role in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Image
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Galveston: In 1900, Galveston, population 36,000, was obliterated, making it the site of the worst natural disaster in US history, a sad record it retains to this day. 6,000 to 12,000 were killed, thousands of buildings wiped out, etc. 1/
2/ Galveston was rebuilt with a massive seawall and the land was raised as much as 17 feet. 15 years later, another similar hurricane and storm surge hit. The wall worked. Only 53 were killed. #Galveston #Texas #hurricane #UShistory
3/ 1900 #Galveston hurricane: Galveston was one of Texas' largest cities and was very, very wealthy. Disregarding #statistics #probabilities #science #data, plans for a seawall to protect the sandbar city were dismissed as ridiculous. #nature
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Daily Bookmarks to GAVNet 04/09/2022 greeneracresvaluenetwork.wordpress.com/2022/04/09/dai…
Global supply chain risk and resilience | VOX, CEPR Policy Portal
voxeu.org/article/global…
#GlobalSupplyChains, #EconomicAnalysis, #risk, #resilience, #robustness
Researchers Identify 'Master Problem' Underlying All Cryptography | Quanta Magazine
quantamagazine.org/researchers-id…
#ComputationalComplexity, #CryptographySecurity, #OneWayFunctions
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Thank you for liking & sharing quotes from Lee's pre-war letters. He was pro-Union & anti-slavery: but he could not "draw his sword" against his state. Read through this compilation of today's #quotes! 1/10
#twitterstorians #USHistory #mythbreakers #VeteransUnite #Military
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1/5 How many lies can you pack into one article? First, Ty says that we argue that Lee was a "benevolent slave master." No, we argue he wasn't a slave master at all! Lee owned no slaves at the time of the war. Hence he wasn't good or bad: he simply owned no slaves. #FactsMatter
2/5 @IndyRecorder actually published an article blaming Lee for the death of U.S. soldiers. But Lee wouldn't have killed a single U.S. soldier that did not invade VA first. So why isn't Lincoln responsible? What law did Lee break? What law did VA break? The article doesn't say!
3/5 Was Lee a reluctant to join the Confederacy? Well, yes! Is it a myth? Nope. We just look at his own words. Strangely @IndyRecorder doesn't quote Lee at all! Mind if I do? Pre-war quotes, of course! No "mythology here."
#twitterstorians #USHistory
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Daily Bookmarks to GAVNet 02/23/2022 greeneracresvaluenetwork.wordpress.com/2022/02/23/dai…
Government guidelines insufficient to protect freshwater ecosystem from salt pollution
phys.org/news/2022-02-g…
#FreshwaterEcosystems, #SaltPollution, #GovernmentGuidelines
Scientists discover new soil viruses
phys.org/news/2022-02-s…
#SoilViruses, #ScientificDiscovery
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#OTD in 1865 Charleston, South Carolina Mayor Charles Macbeth surrendered the city to Lieutenant Colonel A.G. Bennett of the 21st United States Colored Troops. The city had been under siege since the summer of 1863 and its harbor contained Ft. Sumter, where the war began.
Confederate General Beauregard ordered the evacuation three days earlier, nearly four years after he commanded the initial assault of Ft. Sumter in April, 1861. By the afternoon a company of the 54th Mass. (USCT) was helping to extinguish the flames set by the retreating rebels.
Many of the first Union soldiers to enter Charleston were from the USCT and they left a wake of liberation for Black Charlestonians who were legally enslaved the day prior. Days later the 55th Mass. (USCT) walked the streets of downtown singing "John Brown's Body."
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#OTD in 1884 the Chicago Tribune reported on Senate hearings regarding the Danville Massacre in Virginia. The massacre took place on November 3, 1883. The Chicago Tribune’s reporting highlights the tension between white Democrats, Black Republicans and voting at the time. Image
The Danville Massacre (also referred to as the Danville Race Riot) was a violent white backlash to bi-racial democracy in Virginia during the Readjuster movement. The Readjuster Party supported legislation to help alleviate the state's debt incurred during the Civil War.
Danville had thriving majority Black population by the 1880s. Many whites in the area described Black political power as "Negro rule." The Tribune's report quoted a white witness who stated that the Readjusters imposed "the worst rule any people were ever cursed with."
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#CivilWar veteran Theophilus L Covington widowed two women and was a widower once before his own death in 1911.

I still have significant gaps in his story from his birth to 1875.

Where should I start? Maybe chronology will be key. So... #BHM #USHistory #MIHistory🧵
1st sign I have of him is 1860 census where we see his wife Anna Ward Covington and daughter Gertrude, aged 2, born in Michigan. Living in Owosso, Shiawassee County - which became a sundown town. No Theophilus. 2/
During the Civil War, there were income taxes so I find Theophilus L Covington (fabulous uncommon name) in Houghton County Michigan by November of 1862 operating a saloon. 3/
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February 1st marks the beginning of #BlackHistoryMonth and we will be dedicating much of our #OTD posts to Black history throughout the 19th century, particularly during the Civil War Era. You can read about the origins of Black History Month here: asalh.org/about-us/origi…
With that said, #OnThisDay in 1865, Dr. John Rock became the first African American admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court. This occurred the same day President Lincoln signed the 13th Amendment. #History #HistoryMatters #USHistory #AmericanHistory
John Rock lived an extraordinary life. He was a teacher, a prolific abolitionist writer and speaker, a dentist, medical doctor, and lawyer. Rock was born a free man in New Jersey in 1825 and became a teacher at age 19 while studying medicine. #Abolitionist #Teacher
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#OTD in 1865 the Thirteenth Amendment passed the House of Representatives, sending it to the states for ratification. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States “…except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted."
The amendment ended race-based chattel slavery in America, but did not rid the nation of forced labor, which exists through America’s prison system today. #13thAmendment #Constitution #slavery #HistoryMatters #CivilWar #USCivilWar #AmericanCivilWar #PoliticalHistory #knowhistory
Congress abolished slavery in Washington D.C. in 1862. The Emancipation Proclamation outlawed slavery in rebelling states Jan. 1, 1863 and former rebel states were forced to ban slavery in new state constitutions. Republicans in Congress still wanted a Constitutional Amendment.
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#OTD in 1861 a fugitive enslaved person named Sara Lucy Bagby became the last person to be returned to their owner under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. It is unclear when Bagby was born but she was sold in January of 1852 in Richmond to John Goshorn for $600 dollars.
Bagby (More commonly known as Lucy), escaped to Ohio via the Underground Railroad in 1860 and settled in Cleveland. For a short time, she worked as a domestic servant for Republican congressman Albert G. Riddle and as a jeweler
She was arrested on January 19, 1861 and was returned to Goshorn on the 24th. However, After the Emancipation Proclamation in early 1863, Bagby made her way to Pittsburgh, married a man named George Johnson, and relocated with him to Cleveland. Bagby died on July 14th, 1906.
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#OTD in 1848 gold was found at Sutter’s Mill, California. This spurred the California Gold Rush, as northern Free-Soilers and pro-slavery Southerners both flocked to the new territory acquired through the Mexican-American War. #OnThisDay #OnThisDate #TodayInHistory #GoldRush
The battle over California’s fate as a free or slave state ignited intense debate in Congress, deepening the divide between the free North and the slave South. #California #Slavery #CaliforniaHistory
The prospect of a free California threatened to upset the even balance between free and slave states, something that southern slaveholders were unwilling to accept without certain concessions. The issue was temporarily resolved through the Compromise of 1850.
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A.Philip Randolph proved instrumental in urging #FDR to open up the #Marines—and other #military branches—to African American recruits.history.com/news/black-mar… #BlackMarines #ReparationsNow-#ADOS #DefundTheBBC #BidenIsAFailure #Bidenflation #USHistory,#TeachUSHistory,#History
It was just a month since the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor. U.S. troops were arriving in Europe to join Allied forces in fighting Adolf Hitler’s invasions.The United States needed its people to help win World War II.
And yet,in January 1942,the highest-ranking officer in the Marines, General Thomas Holcomb, expressed contempt for an effort to recruit more marines—Black marines—to the force.
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So, I'm redesigning how I teach the Civil Rights in line w/ @learnforjustice's & @ProfJeffries' Teaching Hard History (also, thanks to Adam Sanchez).

We'll do everything from bust the Master Narrative, complicating Rosa Parks, deep dive into the Black Panther Party, & more.
I'll post every lesson I make here for others to use, & keep updating the thread as I make more.

Here's a preview: docs.google.com/presentation/d…

#sschat #socialstudies #history #apush #ushistory #historychat #historyteacher #geographyteacher #filemakeacopy #wearecue #ditchbook Image
1st lesson is done!

The Mythical Master Narrative: Chronology, SNCC, & Civil Rights
docs.google.com/presentation/d…

-Summarize early events of the CR Movement.
-Deconstruct/complicate the Master Narrative by
Challenging the 1950’s as the "start" of the CR Movement & analyzing SNCC.
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A thread about US Presidents...
George Washington remains the ONLY President not to live in the Legendary WHITE HOUSE... #pioneer #America #WhiteHouse #Washington #POTUS Image
John Adams was the First Vice-President and the First President of the Inited States to occupy the White House... He was privileged to see his son (John Quincy Adams) become President as well. #johnadams #UShistory #Whitehouse #POTUS #POTUS2 #July4 #Federalist #USNavy Image
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Last night, news broke after a whistleblower exposed that #ICE is forcibly sterilizing women in its camps, many of whom are Indigenous Central & South Americans. This is horrific, but it’s hardly surprising. Let’s examine why. THREAD 1/x
The US has a long history of forcibly sterilizing #BIWOC & indigent & mentally ill women, in addition to its long history of committing acts of #genocide against #BIPOC through the theft, forced displacement, & sale of children. See Laura Briggs, Taking Children. 2/x
But eugenics & #colonialism are not only part of #UShistory, the US was the template for a number of Nazi projects. Timothy Snyder argues successfully in Black Earth that Hitler’s concept of lebensraum, or living space, was a colonial model based upon US Western Expansion. 3/x
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THREAD on U.S. Flag History:
I've had more than a dozen "Southern Heritage" types all-caps demand that I go learn me some history, so I did.

What I learned is that there were 3 official national flags of the confederacy over a 5 yr period & that the Confederate Flag wasn't...
1/
...actually one of them.

There were actually 45 different flags flown by states and the Confederate Army and Navy.

11 states flew 15 flags during the Civil War, and not one of those flags was, or even included, the modern "Confederate Flag."

2/
Poor Arkansas didn't even have one until 1913.

The modern Confederate Flag was originally the battle flag of the Army of No. Virginia.

The "Confederate Flag" never historically represented the Confederacy & has never actually been officially recognized as one of its flags.

3/
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